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THE HOME-MAKING SERIES 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



AN ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK OF HOME MAKING 



BY 



HELEN KINNE 

PROFESSOR OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, AUTHOR OF " FOOD AND HOUSEHOLD 

MANAGEMENT " AND " SHELTER AND CLOTHING " 

AND 

ANNA M. COOLEY, B.S. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HOUSEHOLD ARTS EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, AUTHOR OF ". FOOD AND HOUSEHOLD 

MANAGEMENT ''AND ," SHELTER ->JND CLOTHING" 

£ ' $ '• ■ ; •",:""•.■• 

, ,-.,, s - .-. ; 



4 




THE I^CMILLAN COMPANY 
1916 

-^// rights ^reserved 






Copyright, 1916, 
By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 



Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 1916. 



Nortoaoto -[ffregs 

J. S. Cushinp Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



1^**7. 



PREFACE 

This volume, like its companion, Food and Healthy is in- 
tended for use in the elementary schools in those sections 
of the country where the home life is of the type described. 
It is hoped that both volumes will be used by the home 
people as well as by those at the school. 

This volume treats largely of the clothing problems and 
of the elementary work in sewing which precedes garment 
making. It also includes the subject of the leading textile 
materials, — where they are grown and how they are manu- 
factured ready for our use. Such topics as the hygiene of 
clothing, buying materials and clothing wisely, the clothing 
budget, the use of the commercial pattern, the care and re- 
pair of clothing, color combinations, and attractiveness in 
dress, are woven in with the lessons on sewing and textiles, 
in a very simple and elementary way. 

The authors are indebted to the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, to the Smithsonian Institution, to the 
Draper Company, Hopedale, Massachusetts, to the York 
Street Flax Spinning Company, Belfast, to the Whittall 
Rug Company, to Cheney Brothers, silk manufacturers, 
and to others, for kind permission to use the pictures 



13l$8? 



iv PREFACE 

shown. We acknowledge, also, the permission of the Cor- 
ticelli Silk Mills of Florence, Massachusetts, for use of 
their copyrighted photographs of silkworms. Teachers 
will be glad to know that they can obtain from the Corti- 
celli Mills, at slight expense, specimen cocoons and other 
helps for object lesson teaching. 



CONTENTS 



The Pleasant Valley School 



Chapter I. 




Lesson 


I 


Lesson 


2 


Lesson 


3 


Lesson 


4 


Lesson 


5 


Lesson 


6 


Lesson 


7 


Lesson 


8 


Lesson 


9 


Lesson 


IO 


Lesson 


1 1 


Lesson 


J2 



The Pleasant Valley Girls Learn to Sew: 

. Toweling and Other Cotton Samples 

. The Story of How Cotton Grows 

. The Hemming Stitch .. 

. The Stitcbing Stitch . 

. The Overhanding Stitch 

. Planning to Make an Apron 

. Using the Running and Back Stitch on the Apron 

. Making and Attaching the Apron Yokes 

. How to Make a Buttonhole . 

. The Use of the Commercial Pattern 

. Taking Measurements and Cutting Out the Petticoat 

. Making; the Petticoats ...... 



Chapter II. The Girls of the Pleasant Valley School Learn 
to Make Simple Garments : 

Lesson i . Cotton Materials Suitable for Underwear 

Lesson 2. Selecting a Pattern and the Cloth for a Nightdress 

Lesson 3. How Cotton Cloth is Woven 

Lesson 4. The Spinning of Cotton into Yarn 

Lesson 5. Cutting Out a Nightdress 

Lesson 6. The Parts of the Sewing Machine 

Lesson 7. Practice in Threading and Running the Machine 

Lesson 8. The French Seam and Its Use 

Lesson 9. Protection for the Body at Night . 

Lesson 10. Laces and Their Use . 

Lesson 11. Trimming the Nightdress 



PAGE 

I 



6 
11 
19 

23 
28 

3i 
34 
37 
39 



46 

53 



53 
63 
65 
72 

73 
80 
84 
86 
89 

Q3 
98 



VI 



CONTENTS 



Lesson 12. Choosing the Pattern and Material for a White Petticoat 10 1 
Lesson 13. Learning to Make the Petticoat . . . . .103 
Lesson 14. How to Make a Corset Cover ..... 105 

Chapter III. Learning to Make Attractive Gifts for Christ- 
mas or for a Birthday Present : 



Lesson 


1. 


Lesson 


2. 


Lesson 


3- 


Lesson 


4- 


Lesson 


5- 


Lesson 


6. 


Lesson 


7- 


Lesson 


8. 


Lesson 


9- 


Lesson 


10. 



The Story of How Silk is Produced 

Simple Articles Easily Made from Silk Scraps 

The Names and Uses of Several Silks are Discussed 

More Useful Gifts and How to Make Them . 

Cousin Ann Tells How Silk is Made into Cloth . 

The Blanket Stitch can be Used in Many Ways . 

Learning to Make the Cross-stitch . 

How to Make the Hemstitch .... 

Another Useful Gift and a New Stitch . 

The Darning Stitch ...... 



Chapter IV. The Pleasant Valley Girls Learn to Care for 
Their Clothes and to Help Repair the Household 
Linens : 

Lesson 1. Care of Clothes ...... 

Lesson 2. Learning to Darn Straight Tears . . ' . 

Lesson 3. Darning Stockings ..... 

Lesson 4. Patching Saves Clothing and Other Articles 

Lesson 5. The Story of How Linen is Grown 

Lesson 6. Common Linen Materials are Identified 

Lesson 7. Removing Common Stains from Table Linen 

Lesson 8. Learning to Wash and Iron the Table or Bed Linen 

Lesson 9. The Story of the Manufacture of Linen Yarn into Cloth 

Lesson 10. A Talk about Buying Linens 



Chapter V. The Pleasant 
Other Garments : 



Valley Girls Learn to Make 



Lesson 


1. 


Lesson 


2. 


Lesson 


3 


Lesson 


4- 


Lesson 


5- 



The Pattern of the Bloomers 

The Story of Where Wool is Grown .... 
Some of the Most Common Materials Made from Wool 
Making a Pair of Bloomers . . . 
The Story of How Wool is Made into Cloth 



109 
116 
122 
127 

131 
138 
142 

147 
149 
152 



156 

163 
167 

171 

174 
181 
185 
188 
191 
196 



201 
203 
209 
215 
218 



CONTENTS 



Vll 



Lesson 
Lesson 
Lesson 
Lesson 
Lesson 



Chapter VI. 

Lesson I. 

Lesson 2. 

Lesson 3. 

Lesson 4. 

Lesson 5. 

Lesson 6. 

Lesson 7. 



Some Facts to Remember in Purchasing Wool Clothing 224 

The Clothing Budget 230 

Planning a Dress Skirt of Cotton Material . . . 236 

Clothing in Relation to Health ..... 240 

More Health Problems in Choosing Clothes . . 243 



Choosing and Wearing Clothes : 
What it Means to be Well Dressed 
The Choice of Colors for Clothing 
Selecting a Hat . . . 

Making the Middy Blouse 

Suggestions for Buying Garments of Wool and Silk 
Learning to Use Some Simple Textile Tests 
How Pattern is Made in Cloth .... 



The Ellen H. Richards House 



250 
256 
262 
268 
271 
278 
285 

291 






<fcir 








mm 






-^ 



THE PLEASANT VALLEY SCHOOL 

This is a story of the way in which the mothers 
and fathers, the teacher and pupils, and their friends 
in the township work together to make the broad valley 
in which they live truly a Pleasant Valley. The new 
school stands where the little red schoolhouse was 
built for those who are now grandmothers and grand- 
fathers, when the town was first settled. The old 
building had become too small for all the young folk, 
but everybody loved the place and it was not until a 
fire had destroyed it that money was voted for larger 
and better housing for the school girls and boys. 

These small books can describe only a part of every- 
thing that is being done in and for the school, and for 
the home people too, for you know that no town can 
prosper and no country be great unless the homes are 



2 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

healthful and happy, where all the members of every 
family work and play together. Do you not want 
to help, too, in your home, and in your town ? 




1819 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 




CHAPTER I 

THE PLEASANT VALLEY GIRLS LEARN TO SEW 

Our clothes are important for they help to keep us 
well. Shall we learn how to choose the materials for 
them, and how to make some useful articles of clothing ? 
Sewing is an art which all girls should learn. If we 
know how to sew, we can keep our clothes in order 
and always be neat and attractive in appearance. We 
can, also, make acceptable articles and gifts for others. 
It is useful, too, to know about materials and about 
their costs and uses ; for, when we buy our clothing 
and household articles ready-made, we should know 
how to tell whether the material is durable and will 
wear. The women of the home should know how to 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



make a dollar buy the very best things. The mothers 
and grandmothers of Pleasant Valley are delighted to 
know that their children are to be taught at school. 
If we understand about materials, we will be able to 
help a great deal. Do you know that the women of 

the United States spend 
a billion of dollars every 
year for textile materials 
alone ? Isn't it interest- 
ing to know, too, that 
our clothing materials 
come from plants or ani- 
mals ? Do you know how 
they are obtained and 
manufactured ? Do you 
belong to a sewing club 
or society ? Perhaps you 
can form a sewing club 
at your school or in 
your town as the girls 
of Pleasant Valley did. 
Marjorie Allen (Fig. i) 
has been made Presi- 
dent of the Girls' Sewing 
League of Pleasant Valley. All the school girls be- 
long ; they meet once a week and usually sew for 
their annual fair. Sometimes they make garments 
for the little children who come during the summer 
to the Fresh Air Home near their town. Marjorie 




Fig. i. — Marjorie Allen, President of 
the Girls' Sewing League. 



LEARNING TO SEW 



buys all the materials ; so she must know how to 
buy. She goes once a month with her mother, Mrs. 
Allen, to town where there is a good store. Some- 
times she orders by mail. 

The girls of the league have decided to make some 
kitchen towels and potlifters. These are useful and 




Fig. 2. — Miss James and some of the Pleasant Valley girls. They are sewing 

for the League fair. 

always sell well. As the girls do not yet know how 
to make these articles, they have promised to make a 
towel for themselves for school use, on which to learn. 
Then they will make others for the sale. Cooking, 
sewing, and housewifery are a part of the school work. 
Besides Miss James, the teacher, will give credit for the 



6 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

sewing done by the Girls' League. The girls are anx- 
ious to prove to Miss James (Fig. 2) that they can 
really work outside of school. 

Later the girls hope to make aprons and caps to 
wear for their school work in housewifery, and also 
some petticoats for the children at the Fresh Air 
Home. Miss James says she will help them at school 
to get started. 

Lesson i 

toweling and other cotton samples 

Marjorie sent for samples of toweling materials. She also went 
to the town store to see what it had to offer, and to look for ma- 
terials for petticoats and aprons. One day at school all the girls 
wrote for samples. Miss James criticized the letters, and chose the 
best one to be sent. Perhaps you can do this at your school. 

What material is best for toweling ? As soon as 
all the samples arrived at Pleasant Valley, Marjorie 
took them to school, and Miss James spent an hour 
with the girls studying the materials. The toweling 
samples were examined first. What a difference in 
them ! Some are smooth and feel cold and look 
almost shiny, and others feel soft and look more fuzzy 
on the surface. Do you know why ? It is because 
some are woven of linen fibers made from the flax 
plant, and others from cotton which comes from the 
cotton plant. Which do you think are made from 
cotton ? Then, there is a difference in width : some 
are only 15 inches wide, and others are 18 inches. 



LEARNING TO SEW 7 

Some have a red or blue edge, and others are plain. 
There is also difference in price. Which costs more, 
linen or cotton ? Are the prices not given on the 
samples ? Marjorie and the girls decided that the 
towels are to be one yard long. They would like to 
make four dozen for the sale and plan to tie them up 
attractively, half a dozen in a package. They had 
#25 left in the treasury from last year. As they will 
have many other things to buy, they decided to pur- 
chase cotton towels this year. Later, if there is enough 
money, they can add some linen towels. Cotton towels 
do not absorb the water as easily as the linen. We 
call this a difference in the properties of the two 
materials. Barbara Oakes said her mother always 
buys linen towels. Cotton fibers have a kind of 
waxy coating which throws off the water. Linen 
fibers draw in moisture quickly, and linen materials 
dry very rapidly. Why, then, is linen really better 
for dish towels ? 

Gingham, calico, and chambray are pretty and 
useful. Let us look at some of the other cotton 
materials. Miss James had many samples for the 
girls to see. Grandmother Stark sent over some from 
her piece bag. Perhaps your teacher will bring some, 
and your mother may send some, too. There are several 
samples of material for the aprons and caps. The 
blue and white, and pink and white stripes and checks 
are ginghams ; the white with the little spots and thin 
stripes are percales. The plain blues and pinks are 



8 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 




TEXTILE 
SAMPLE 
BOOK 



chambray ; the plain blues and pinks of cheaper grade 
are ginghams. Those with printed designs on one side 
are calicos. The dark brown and blue samples are 
heavier and are called denims. Suppose we make a 
book of brown paper and mount all the cotton materials 
we can find. This book can be kept at the school 

for reference. Everybody must 

help. See if it is possible to 

write under each sample the 

name and common uses of the 

material as well as its price. 

jl SAMPLE Miss James had some smooth 

y{ BOOK brown paper to fold for a book. 

U She suggested ways to bind it. 

If each girl wishes her own 

I book, a number can be made 

I if so many samples can be ob- 

Fig. 3.— The girls made brown tained. Barbara and Marjorie 

paper books for their textile j jj make h j books 

samples. 

home. 
There are several varieties of cotton flannel. The 
fuzzy soft cotton samples are outing flannels and canton 
flannels. What is the difference in their appearance ? 
The canton flannel is heavier, and it has one twilled 
surface and one fuzzy surface. It costs 12 cents a 
yard and comes about 30 inches in width. Outing 
flannel, which is fuzzy on both sides, can be bought 
from 10 to 35 cents a yard, and it is 36 inches wide. 
The flannelette samples are also soft and cost from 8 



LEARNING TO SEW 9 

to 12 cents per yard ; but flannelette is only 27 inches 
in width. It has a slight nap or fuzzy surface, and is 
sometimes plain in color and sometimes printed on 
one surface. Compare these three materials. Outing 
flannel is very dangerous unless treated with ammonium 
phosphate. Dissolve one quarter of a pound of am- 
monium phosphate, which costs about 25 cents, in one 
gallon of cold water. Soak the clothing in this solu- 
tion for five minutes. This is easily done and may 
prevent much trouble. Can you tell why outing 
flannel is dangerous unless it is treated ? 

Many other cotton materials are useful. Miss James 
has ever so many more cotton materials. She told the 
girls the use and name of each. Can we learn them all ? 

Cheesecloth. Thin, sheer, plain weave. Costs from 5 to 12 
cents per yard, and comes 1 yard wide. It is used for wrapping 
butter or cheese, for curtains, and for many other purposes. It 
may be used for baby, too, because it is so soft. The unbleached 
cheesecloth costs from 4 to 12 cents and is 1 yard wide. 

Crinoline. Something like cheesecloth in appearance and 
stiffer in texture. It is used by dressmakers for stiffening parts of 
garments. It comes from about 19 to 36 inches wide and costs 
12J cents up. 

Scrim. An open mesh weave but heavier than cheesecloth. It 
is used for curtains and household furnishings, and comes bleached 
or unbleached. What is the difference in their color ? Cost, from 
12 to 90 cents. Width, from 36 to 45 inches. 

Cretonne and Chintz. Printed materials with flowers or designs 
on one side, sometimes on both. They cost from 12 to 75 cents per 
yard and are used for curtains, covers, cushion tops, etc. They 
vary in width from 25 to 36 inches. 



IO 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Denim. Strong material and has an uneven twilled weave. It 
is used for furniture covers, for aprons, and for floor covering. It 
costs from 1 8 to 30 cents per yard and comes about 1 yard in width. 
Your big brother or father wears overalls of this material ; perhaps 
some of the boys in school do, too. 

Gingham. A material used for aprons or dresses, skirts, etc. 
It is from 24 to 30 inches wide and costs from 10 to 50 cents per 
yard. Fine ginghams are very beautiful. Sometimes they are 
plain in color or striped or in plaids. 

Percale. A good piece can be bought for 12^ cents per yard, 36 
inches wide. It comes plain or printed, and is firm and closely 
woven. It is good for aprons or summer dresses. 

Ticking. A material used for pillows or mattress covers. It is 
striped, is twilled in weave, and wears very well. It costs from 
12J cents per yard up to 50 or 60 cents per yard, and is woven 36 
inches wide. 

Do you understand what is meant when we read 
that cloth is woven 36 inches wide ? Do you know 
how cotton cloth is made and where it comes from ? 

Grandmother Allen told some of 
the girls ; for she knows about all 
such things. In our next lesson 
we shall study where cotton is 
grown, and in another learn how 
it is woven. Another day we 
will learn the names of other 

Fig. 4. — The surprise box. . ■, ■. , 

cotton materials and their uses. 
Then, we can add them to our book of cotton samples. 
The little white box on Miss James' desk is a surprise 
box (Fig. 4). Any one who finds a new cotton material 
different from those studied at school, Miss James says, 



*s 



LEARNING TO SEW n 

may drop it through the little hole in the cover of the 
box. What fun the girls of Pleasant Valley will have 
when it is opened. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. If you were buying kitchen toweling for use at home, what 
material would you buy ? 

2. Name three fuzzy cotton materials and tell their uses. 

3. Decide whether you are to make a sample book. Begin to 
collect samples of cotton materials for it. 

4. Write quickly on the blackboard the names of six common 
cotton materials. Ask mother to name six. 

Lesson 2 

the story of cotton growing 

Do you know that our country produces three-fourths of the 
cotton of the world ? Where is it grown ? Have you heard the 
story of cotton ? Let us learn about it. 

W 7 hile the girls of Pleasant Valley school waked for 
the cotton toweling to come from the store, they studied 
about where cotton is grown. Cotton is the cheapest 
and most important textile fiber. What does the word 
textile mean ? Look up the word in the school diction- 
ary. More clothing is made from cotton than from 
any other fiber. 

Where does cotton grow? Perhaps you have 
lived in the Southern States. Can you name them 
without looking at your geography ? Can you tell 
why it is warmer in those states and why cotton grows 



12 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



so well there, and not in Northern States ? Texas 
produces more cotton than any other state. In what 
other countries of the world do you think cotton is 
grown ? John Alden and Frank Allen heard the girls 
studying about cotton, and they told Miss James 
that they thought the boys would like to learn, too. 

How cotton grows. The farmer 
plants the cotton seeds in rows, — 
you have seen corn planted in that 
way. What color is corn ? The 
cotton seeds do not look like kernels 
of corn ; but some are fuzzy and 
soft and gray or green in color, and 
others are black and smooth. This 
is because there are many varieties 
or kinds of cotton. Some grow to 
be five feet tall like corn ; others, 
ten feet in height. Some have 
Fig. 5— The flower and yellow flowers, and some brown and 

leaf of the cotton plant. i j npi 

The size of the flower Purple red. ^ There are over one 
is about four inches hundred varieties of cotton. If you 
do not live near a cotton field, per- 
haps you can ask some boy or girl in your school to 
write to the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture at Washington. This department will send you 
some cotton seeds. Perhaps you can plant the seeds 
in the school garden and see if they will grow. In 
the South the planter prepares the fields about 
February and plants in April or May. By the mid- 




Courtesy of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 



LEARNING TO SEW 



13 



die of August, the plants are five or six feet high 
and are covered with fuzzy little white balls, soft 
and dry. The cotton fields, or plantations as they 
are called, look like fairyland. In the picture (Fig. 
6) you will see the men, women, and children busy 
picking the cotton and putting it into baskets. The 





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Courtesy of the United Stales Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 6. — Picking cotton. 

cotton bolls, as they are called, are brown and dry look- 
ing ; but when ripe, they burst, and the woolly looking 
white ball pops out of its brown house, or shell (Fig. 7). 
In each cotton boll there are about thirty or forty 
seeds, and the cotton fibers are all attached to these 
seeds. The fibers are made into thread and clothing, 
and the seeds are used for many purposes. 



H 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 




Courtesy of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 7. — Cotton 
bolls when burst 
are about the size 
of a small apple. 



Cotton fibers differ. We shall learn 
how the fiber is pulled from the seeds. 
This process is called ginning and is 
done by a machine. If you have a 
miscroscope in your school, look at a 
cotton fiber under the glass. Miss 
James will send for some fibers. You 
will see that it looks like a ribbon 
which has been twisted. The natural 
twist helps very much when cotton is 
twisted or is manufactured into yarn. 
Cotton is a wonderful little fiber and 
varies in length from ^ to 2^ inches. 
The cotton called Sea Island cotton 
is the long fiber cotton, and is grown 

near the sea, for it needs the sea air. The cotton 

called Upland grows away on the uplands and is 

shorter. These are the 

principle kinds grown in 

the United States. 

The cotton seeds are 

taken from the fiber. 

After the pickers have 

gone up and down the 

long rows and filled their 

baskets, they empty the 

cotton bolls into wagons 

which carry the cotton 

tO the gin house, Where Fig. 8. — Cotton fibers magnified. 




LEARNING TO SEW 



15 



the seeds are separated from the fibers and the brown 
pieces of the pod are blown away as it is separated and 
cleaned. Long ago in India and other countries, 
cotton was ginned by hand. What a long tedious pro- 
cess, for only one pound could be separated by a 
person in a day. The 
picture (Fig. 9) shows a 
little girl at school trying 
to gin some cotton with 
a little ginning machine 
which she has made at 
school. While George 
Washington was Presi- 
dent of the United States, 
a man named Eli Whit- 
ney invented a machine, 
called the saw gin, for 
separating cotton fibers 
from the seed. This in- 
vention has saved much 
time. To-day cotton is 
all ginned by machinery ; 
and so great quantities 
can be separated in a day. The machine works in 
such a way that the cotton fibers are pulled away 
from the seeds, and the seeds are kept separate for 
other purposes. 

The cotton seeds are used, too. Some of the seeds 
are kept for planting, just as you keep corn and oats 




Courtesy of Speyer School, New York. 

Fig. 9. — A Pleasant Valley girl trying 
to gin some cotton with a little ginning 
machine which she has made at school. 



i6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



on your farm ; and others are pressed. Cottonseed 
oil comes from the seeds when pressed, and is very 
useful for many purposes, such as salad oil, soaps, 
candles, cooking fats. The hulls of the seeds are 
used for fertilizer, and the dry cake which is left 
after the oil has been extracted, is used for feeding 




Fig. io. — Bales of cotton on a steamboat dock ready for shipping. 



the cattle. Isn't cotton a very valuable plant ? How 
poor we should be without it, for silk and wool and 
linen cost so much more. Cotton is the cheap, useful 
fiber. 

The cotton is baled and shipped to manufacturers. 
After cotton has been freed from the seed, it is sent 
to the cotton mills all over the world ; some in this 



LEARNING TO SEW 



17 



country and some in Europe. It is sent by boats and 
sometimes by train. In the picture (Fig. 10) you will 
see bales on the dock ready to be shipped. In order to 
ship it safely after it is ginned, it is pressed into bales 
like the hay you have on your farm ; and it is covered 
with coarse cloth to keep it clean, and is bound with 



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Courtesy of United Slates Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 11. — Bales of cotton from different countries. The third from the left 
is the American bale. The second is Egyptian; the fourth, East Indian. 



iron bands. The American cotton bales weigh about 
500 pounds. This is the size of a bale : 58" X 30" 
X 22". See if you can measure off in your school- 
room a space which will show the size of the bale. 
When these bales are taken to the steamboat piers, 
they are again made smaller by a machine, called a 



18 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

compressor, which reduces them to 7 inches in thick- 
ness. This is so the bales will not take up so much 
room in being transported. Sometimes, however, this 
pressing injures the fiber. The United States ships 
cotton to Liverpool, Bremen, Havre, Genoa, and many 
other places. Can you find these on the map and see 
what a long journey the cotton takes ? John Alden 
went to the map and traced the journey. He used 
the pointer and started from one of the ports of 
Louisiana. Can you imagine which one ? Which way 
do you think the steamer sailed in order to reach 
England as soon as possible r Perhaps you live near 
a shipping port and can go with your teacher to 
see the cotton loaded on the ships. Notice how 
the bales are lowered into the hold. There are 
large exporting companies which take charge of ship- 
ping bales of cotton. What is the difference between 
import and export? We import some cotton from 
Egypt, because it is a very long fibered cotton and is 
good for thread, hosiery, and cotton gloves. Another 
day we shall study how the manufacturer at the mill 
opens the cotton bale and makes it into cloth. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Where is cotton grown in the United States? Find the' 
states on the map. Tell why cotton is grown in these states. 

2. Examine a cotton fiber with the microscope. How does it 
look ? Draw a picture of it. 

3. Look up the story of Eli Whitney's invention. Why was it 
important ? 



LEARNING TO SEW 19 

Lesson 3 

the hemming stitch 

Let us begin to make the dish towels. What must we think 
about in order to hem them very neatly ? 

Why is the hemming stitch useful ? The he mmin g 
sti tenuis a ^very_nsf!fiil one to lear n, for it can be used 
for so many purposes. Let us learn on something 
"simple — a dish towel or dish cloth for mother. Then 
you can perhaps hem something for the sale of your 
Girls' League. Mrs. Oakes says she has a dozen new 
towels ready for Barbara when she learns how to hem. 

The raw _edgea-o f materi alyv^ujd_m vel un less turned 
and hemmed. The turning is called a hem. Jj^js_ 
held^wlth a temporary stitch called basting, and then 
with the hemming stitch which remains. If the edges 
were not hemmed, the material would ravel away or 
look very untidy. The warp threads run lengthwise 
of the cloth. The firm selvedge is made by the filling 
thread passing around the warp as the cloth is made. 
It is this filling thread which will ravel in dish toweling 
or other material unless a hem is made. 

How is the hemming stitch made ? This is how 
Miss James taught the girls of Pleasant Valley to hem : 

1. Turn hem of desired width. For the towels, one-fourth inch 
will be about right when finished. There are two turns because 
one would ravel. Turn towards the worker. First, turn one- 
eighth inch to wrong side of material. Second, turn one-fourth 
inch. Turn and pinch to hold until basted. 



20 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



2. Baste. Use one-fourth inch stitches. No. 8 needle is a 
good size for this work, and basting thread can be used for this 




Fig. 12. — The basting stitch. 



temporary stitch. Be sure to wear a thimble on the middle finger 
of the right hand. Little Alice Allen says she never will learn to 

use a thimble, but she will if she keeps 
on trying. The picture (Fig. 12) shows 
the even basting stitch with needle in 
position. Baste on the edge of the hem. 
Begin with a knot, and end with two 
tiny stitches placed one on top of the 
other to hold until hemmed. Remem- 
ber basting is a temporary stitch. 

3. Hem the edge with the hemming 
stitch. Look at the pictures (Figs. 13-16) 
and then follow carefully the directions. 
Hold the cloth slanting over the fin- 
gers of the left hand, with thumb on top (Fig. 13). Begin without 
a knot. Put the needle up through edge of hem and allow one 
inch of end of thread to lie under the hem as you pull thread 
through (Fig. 14). This end will be worked over and held se- 




Fig. 13. — The way to hold the 
cloth while hemming. 



LEARNING TO SEW 



21 



curely. Now you are ready for the stitch. Point the needle 
which is in your right hand towards the left shoulder. The 





Fig. 14. — This shows how to start 
the hemming. 



Fig. 15. — The hemming stitch. 
Notice the slant of the needle. 



point of the needle is passed first through the cloth under the 
edge of the hem, with a tiny stitch which shows on the right 



22 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



side. The needle, at the same time, catches the edge of the 
basted hem. This makes a tiny slanting stitch on the right 

side, so : /. The next stitch is 
taken about one-sixteenth of an 
inch from the first, in exactly 
the same way. As the thread 
carries from one stitch to the 
next, it makes a slanting line 
on the wrong, or hem, side but 
in the opposite direction from 
1 y ^^^ ^w tne stitch which shows on the 

right side. It slants like this : \ 

Together these two make this : <( 



<*\ 




The part marked I shows on the 
right side of the cloth ; and 2 on 
the wrong, where the hem is 
turned (Fig. 15). When the end 
of hem is reached, fasten with 
two or three tiny stitches. If 
the thread breaks, ravel out a 
few stitches and let the old end 
of thread lie under the hem. The 
new thread can then be started 
as at the beginning by putting 
needle in the hole of last stitch. 
There will be two ends under the 
hem to work over. The picture 
(Fig. 16) shows how to join a new 
Find out how many places the hemming stitch can be 



Fig. 16. — The hemming stitch. Start 
ing a new thread. 

thread 

used. Try it at home on something before next lesson. 

When this stitch has been well learned, it will be pos- 
sible for the Girls' Sewing League to make many things. 



LEARNING TO SEW 



23 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Practice turning hems neatly on a scrap of cloth before 
starting to turn them on the dish towel. 

2. Study the pictures carefully so as to have the stitch exactly 
the right slant. 

3. Practice hemming on a scrap of cloth for a few stitches before 
beginning the towel. 

Lesson 4 



THE STITCHING STITCH 

Shall we try to make a potholder and learn another new stitch ? 

Holders are very useful to the housekeeper. Mrs. 
Stark has a bag with pockets hanging near the kitchen 
stove and says it makes 
such a convenient place to 
keep holders, for they are 
always at hand ready for 
use. They can be made 
many sizes. For the cook- 
ing class at school, it is 
convenient for each girl to 
have a holder on a tape 
attached to the band of 
her apron (Fig. 17). It is 
always with her, then, for 
use. This can be done by making a loop at the end 
of the tape and slipping the holder through the 
loop. A hand towel attached at the same place is 
convenient, too. 




Fig. 17. — The holder. 



2 4 • CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Planning, cutting, and basting the holders. Holders 
can be made from old scraps of woolen cloth, from either 
pieces of garments which have been worn and cast 
aside, or new scraps from the piece bag. Six inches 
square is a good size. Place several squares, one on 
top of the other, according to the thickness of the 
cloth. Can you tell why wool makes a better holder 
than cotton ? For appearance we can cover the holder 
with some pretty piece of chintz or cretonne ; perhaps 
you have in the piece bag some pieces which are large 
enough. Denim is strong for a covering. A piece 
of asbestos might be placed inside. Why ? Pin all 
these thicknesses together, with a cover top and bottom. 
Now baste from corner to corner and from side to side. 
This is good practice. Make basting stitches of even 
length such as you made on the towels. Then baste 
carefully all around the four sides so that the edges are 
held securely. We are going to bind the edge to pre- 
vent it from raveling and to make it strong. Tape 
is good for binding ; and so is a bias strip of the cre- 
tonne cover, or of a pretty contrasting color. What 
does contrasting mean ? 

Cutting and placing a bias strip. Can you learn 
to cut a true bias strip of cloth ? You have learned 
that the warp threads are the strong threads of the 
cloth and run lengthwise of the material. To prepare 
to cut a true bias strip (Fig. 18), fold the warp of 
the cloth over so that the warp threads lie exactly on 
the filling threads. The fold is a true bias edge. Cut 



LEARNING TO SEW 



25 



through the fold. A true bias edge is made by cutting 

a square from corner to corner. Does it cut the warp 

or the filling threads ? To make one-inch strips for 

binding the holder, measure at right angles to the fold 

you have just cut. Make a dot, and rule a light line 

which will be one inch from the cut edge. These are 

true bias strips. Baste the strip 

or tape carefully around the four 

sides of the holder, and allow a 

little fullness at the corner. The 

edge of the strip or tape should 

be even with the edge of the 

holder, and the basting should 

be one-fourth of an inch from 

the edge in a straight line for a 

guide for the next stitch. Miss 

James showed the girls how to 

turn the corners by taking a 

tiny plait. 

Making the stitching stitch. Now we are ready for 
a new strong stitch. It is called stitching stitch, for 
it is used where machine stitching might be used, and 
resembles it in appearance on the right side. Ask 
your Grandmother if she remembers when there were 
no sewing machines and all Grandfather's shirts were 
stitched by hand ? Grandmother Allen and Grand- 
mother Stark of Pleasant* Valley rem.ember. 

Look at the picture (Fig. 19) and. foilow the direc- 
tions carefully, and you will be able to make this 




Fig. 18. — Cutting a true bias. 



26 • CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

stitch. It is started with two or three tiny stitches, 
one over the other for strength. The row of stitches 
you are to make should be in a straight line just below 
the straight row of basting stitches. Hold the cloth 
in the same way as for hemming, with the material 
over the fingers and the thumb on top.| Now you 
are ready to make the new stitch. The stitch is 
started at the right-hand end of the cloth. Make a 




Fig. 19. — The stitching stitch. 

stitch back over the two starting stitches and carry 
the needle forward twice the length of this starting 
stitch. You will have a tiny space on the right side 
between the place where the needle comes up and the 
end of the starting stitch. Each time your thread 
should fill this space, for your needle should go back 
into the end of the. last stitch a.na twice the length 
forward on the opposite side as it comes /up. See the 
needle in the picture (Fig. 19). Notice the space. 



LEARNING TO SEW 27 

Look at your work. What is the appearance, of the 
stitch on the wrong side ? On the right side ? This 
stitch is also called the backstitch. Why ? 

Finishing the holder. Make a row of stitching 
stitches all around the edge of the holder, holding the 
binding securely. Be careful to catch the corners 
well. Remove your basting stitches. Turn the tape 
or strip over to the other side of the holder and baste. 
If you have used a bias strip, the edge must be turned 
under one-fourth of an inch or more before basting. 
This edge is to be held with the hemming stitch. I 
am sure that you can all make the hemming stitch by 
now. If you wish a loop or long tape for holding the 
holder, hem it neatly at one side, turning in the end 
of the tape to prevent raveling. If you have some 
colored silk thread, it will look well to make tiny stars 
like this * at the center of the holder and at four 
places about two inches from the corners on the diag- 
onals. These will hold the materials firmly together. 

Other uses for the stitching stitch. The stitching 
stitch can be used for many other purposes. It is a 
strong stitch for seams. Do you know what a seam 
is ? Two pieces of cloth sewed together may form a 
seam. Look for seams in your skirt, in your sleeve, 
in your waist. Can you find any ? Some one tell 
the difference between a hem and a seam. After this 
lesson Mollie Stark helped her Grandmother sew some 
long seams. Mr. Stark's overalls had ripped, and the 
sewing machine was being repaired. 



28 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 



1. Practice cutting some bias strips. Be sure they are true bias 
edges. How can you tell ? 

2. Try to make the stitching stitch on teacher's demonstration 
cloth, with the large needle and red worsted. 



\ 



Lesson 5 



THE OVERHANDING STITCH 



A new game and a new stitch. Let us make the bags with the 
new stitch before we learn to play the game. 

Perhaps, instead of a potholder, you had rather 
make iron holders or bean bags for your League Fair. 
Have you ever played bean bag game ? The Pleasant 
Valley school children often play this game at recess. 
You can easily make the bags and also the board. 




Fig. 20. — The overhanding stitch. 



LEARNING TO SEW 29 

Making the bean bag. Bean bags can also be 
sewed with the stitching stitch, as it is strong. Cut 
the bags of denim 14 X 7 inches, or so as to make a 
bag 7 inches square. Fold, baste the edges on three 
sides, sew them with stitching stitch, and turn inside 
out. Fill with beans. Two inches at the middle of 
one side should not be sewed until after the beans have 
been put in. Would you like to learn the overhanding 
stitch for closing the edges of that side ? The two edges 
of the bag are turned in, and the overhanding stitch is 
made on the very edge. It is 
a very simple stitch, and is 
used for sewing seams or edges 
together firmly. The edges 
are held in the left hand be- 
tween the thumb and first 
finger. The needle in the 

•l.i j .'•• • j ■ • r > Fig. 21. — The bean bag board. 

right hand is pointed straight 

through towards the worker as in the* picture (Fig. 
20), and the needle is passed through the two edges. 
The end of the thread is drawn carefully, and one- 
half of an inch allowed to lie on the edge. This is 
worked over. The needle is pointed with each stitch 
towards the worker, and the stitches are placed about 
one-eighth of an inch apart. Be very careful to catch 
both edges, but do not make your stitches too deep. 
The overhanding stitch is a strong stitch and is easy to 
make. It is finished by working backwards from left to 
right on the edge with three or four of the same stitches. 




3° 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Playing the bean bag game. The boys will surely 
wish to help prepare the board for the bean bag game. 
Frank Allen and John Alden made the one used at 
Pleasant Valley school. Perhaps there is an old box 
somewhere which can be braced with sticks and made 
to stand slanting. The bottom of the box will have 




Courtesy of Mrs. E. J. Esstistyn. 
Fig. 22. — John Alden's little brother trying for a high score. 

to be cut in holes (see Fig. 21). Each hole can be a 
different shape and numbered 5, 10, 25, or 50. The 
object of the game is to see how high a score can be 
obtained by throwing the bags through the holes. One 
should stand six feet or more from the board. Each 
should have ten turns. Some one must keep the score. 
The boys will have to help saw or whittle to get the 
holes just right. Do you think you can make both 



LEARNING TO SEW 31 

the bags and the game board ? The picture (Fig. 22) 
shows John Alden's little brother playing the game. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Try to make the bean bag board. Perhaps you can think of 
an easier way. 

2. Find five places where the overhanding stitch is used and 
report at the next lesson. 

Lesson 6 
planning to make an apron 

The girls of Pleasant Valley school decided to make caps and 
aprons. They help every day with the preparation of the school 
lunch. The aprons will keep their dresses clean, so the girls will 
look neat and tidy. The aprons can also be used at home. Let 
us too learn how to cut them carefully. 

The samples which Marjorie Allen brought from the 
store have been examined and studied carefully. The 
girls know now the difference in appearance between 
percales, calicos, ginghams, chambrays, and also how 
much they cost. Most of the girls have decided to 
make pink and white, or blue and white, checked aprons 
of gingham. It costs 12^ cents a yard ; and the girls 
require from two and one-half to three yards, accord- 
ing to size. They are to make their own pattern for 
the aprons, as they are so simple. When they make 
the petticoats for the Fresh Air children, they will 
learn to use a commercial pattern. 

Cutting the skirt part. Each girl will need two 
lengths for the skirt part of the apron, measuring from 



32 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



the armhole at chest, to the desired length. No 
pattern is necessary for this skirt part. On each length 
allow four inches extra for hem. Tear one length, 
lengthwise ; be careful not to tear it crosswise of the 
material. The two pieces torn down are to be placed 
one on each side of the whole width, with selvedges 
together. 

Planning the pattern for the yoke. Now the yoke 
pattern is to be made. Miss James helped the Pleas- 
ant Valley girls with the patterns. You will need a 

good-sized piece of paper, 
pencil, and a tapeline. 
Measure the width of 
chest from side to side, 
just at the armhole in 
front. Look at diagram 
(Fig. 23) ; this measure 
is the bottom of the yoke. 
Draw a line the length of chest measure across the bot- 
tom of your paper. Measure up six inches, and draw a 
line at right angles to each end of the chest line. This 
is to find the shoulder. Draw a dotted line three 
inches at right angles to this, as shown in the diagram. 
Then draw a line three inches to form a third side of 
the square. Do this for the other shoulder and con- 
nect the two lines with a line parallel to the chest line. 
You will have a yoke three inches wide in front. The 
shoulder lines are too straight ; so draw slanting lines 
just a little towards the outside or armhole side, taking 



fclN. 


_-_-.3lN,.. 


2 




__ 


<r 










z 




Z \ 



Fig. 23. 



The plan for the yoke of the 
apron. 



LEARNING TO SEW 



33 



off one-half inch on shoulder edge. This is the only 
pattern needed ; for the back pattern is exactly the 
same, but is divided in half and cut straight through 
the center for the opening in back. 

Cutting the yoke. Lay the pattern on the cloth 
so that the width of chest line is on the filling threads 
of the cloth. Four pieces will be needed. Can you 
double your cloth and cut 
two at once ? The yoke 
is made double of two 
thicknesses ; that is why 
we must cut two pieces 
for the back and two for 
the front. Cut the two 
back portions through the 
center back, on the thread 
of material. Now our 
aprons are all cut. Care- 
fully roll up the pieces 
and material left, for you 
will need them if you 
make the caps. 

Basting the skirt part. Let us make the skirt 
of the apron first. Pin the widths together, selvedge 
to selvedge, to form seams. You all know what the 
selvedge is. Look in the dictionary. How is it made 
so firm ? The whole width is for the center front ; 
the half width for each side. Pin together and baste 
one-fourth inch seams, to within 8 or 9 inches of each 




Fig. 24. — Four of the Pleasant Valley 
girls wearing their finished aprons. 



34 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

length ; this will be left open under each arm. Baste 
also one-fourth inch hems at the outside edges of the 
side lengths which are raveling. Turn the hems to 
the same side as the seams, the wrong side. Now all 
the basting is done, and next time we shall be ready 
for a new stitch. The picture (Fig. 24) shows some of 
the Pleasant Valley girls wearing their aprons. Can 
you guess which is Mollie Stark or Barbara Oakes ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Look up these words in the dictionary: selvedge, warp, woof ", 
pattern. 

2. Name other materials, besides gingham, suitable for work 
aprons. 

Lesson 7 

using the running and back stitch on the apron 

A new stitch called running and back stitch is very useful for 
seams (Fig. 25). It is a quick stitch, and it is strong. Let us learn 
to make it on the seams of the aprons. We shall need it later 
for other things. 

The apron seams are all basted with one-fourth inch 
seams. The selvedges have not been removed. Some 
day we shall learn to make a seam which will be sewed 
twice, and then we shall remove the selvedges. A 
seam made with one sewing is called a plain seam. 
The basting is only a temporary stitch. 

To sew seams. Hold the material in the left hand 
over the fingers, with thumb on top. You will sew 



LEARNING TO SEW 35 

from right to left. Start with two or three tiny stitches, 
one over the other, without knot. Pull needle through 
after the starting stitches. Now take two or three 
tiny running stitches ; they are like basting, only much 
smaller. As you make the running stitches, the last 
one is to be twice the length of the others as the needle 
is pulled through. This is because the next stitch is 
to be backwards — a backstitch to cover half the space. 




Fig. 25. — A new stitch called the running and back stitch. 

On the side towards you, your row of stitches should 
look like running stitches ; on the wrong side, it 
will be different because of the backstitch. You 
should have the stitches in a straight row under the 
line of basting. The backstitch, which covers half 
the space left by the running, is twice the length of 
the running stitch on the wrong side. This will bring 
the needle up ahead of the stitch and ready for the 
next group of running stitches. Both seams of the 
skirt of the apron are to be sewed to within 8 or 9 



36 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

inches under the arm. Finish with three tiny stitches, 
one over another. Remove bastings, and press open 
the seams. Can you not take this home and sew the 
other long seam there, now that you know how ; or 
can you not do it at the meeting of the Sewing League ? 
The girls of Pleasant Valley did. Sometimes they 
sat under the big oak trees on Friday afternoons and 
had their sewing lessons outdoors. 

To hem sides. Hem sides of apron which you 
have basted, making small stitches. You know how. 

To hem bottom of apron. Turn hem at bottom of 
apron. The cloth should be even. Four inches were 

I allowed. The first turn 

L -v^ v 



3- IN. 



may be one-fourth of an 
inch ; the second, three 
and one-half inches. The 

Fig. 26. -A gauge for the apron hem. ° ther quarter inch al- 
lowed is for gathering at 
top of apron. Pin carefully and measure, with a 
tapeline or a gauge. Can you make a gauge ? A piece 
of cardboard with a notch for one or three inches ac- 
cording to measure desired, is a gauge. The diagram 
(Fig. 26) shows how to cut a one-inch gauge. Can 
you make a three-inch gauge, and keep your hems 
even by following the marked notch ? Baste hems 
carefully after pinning. Hem neatly. 

To gather the top of apron. You are now ready to 
gather the top of the widths. They are to fit into the 
yoke ; and, as they are too wide, we shall have to make 



LEARNING TO SEW 37 

them fit. Gathering is done by making two rows of 
running stitches (small basting stitches), one under 
the other. This is done on each width with the rows 
of running stitches one-fourth of an inch apart. Begin 
with a knot and have your thread a little longer than 
the width you are gathering. You can then draw the 
material on the gathering threads, and make it fit the 
yoke. 

Let us put the finished skirts of the apron away 
neatly, and next lesson sew on the yokes. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Make a three and one-half inch gauge, using a piece of card- 
board or a stiff paper. 

2. Practice gathering on a practice piece of cloth. See how 
quickly you can do it, putting in two even rows. 

Lesson 8 

making and attaching the apron yokes 

The yokes are to be seamed at the shoulders. There are two 
yokes ; one is for the lining. Let us sew them together and attach 
them to the skirt of the apron. 

To make the yoke. Pin the two back portions of 
yoke to the one front portion. Baste at shoulder 
seams one-fourth of an inch. Sew with running and 
back stitch, which you used for the apron skirt. 

Make the lining yoke in same way. Sew two back 
portions to one front. 



38 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

When both yoke and lining are ready, pin together 
so that the two right sides are together and seams match 
at shoulders. Baste carefully together all around with 
one-fourth inch seams only, except across the bottom 
at width of chest line. Be careful not to take deeper 
seams, for then the yoke will be too small. The chest 
line width of the yoke is left open so the skirt can be 
placed between. The back portions of the yoke 
are also left open at the bottom. After basting, 
sew below the basting with running and back stitch. 
Remove the bastings and turn the yoke inside out. 
Crease edges carefully. Your yoke will lap one-half 
inch in back when finished. Now you are ready to 
attach the skirt to the yoke. 

To attach the yoke. You will attach the front of 
the yoke to the front gathered width. Find the 
center of front yoke. Mark with pin. Find the 
center of gathered width. Place the right side of the 
yoke to the right side of the skirt width, center to 
center ; and pin. Do not pin the lining yoke, for it 
is to be sewed down later to cover the seam you will 
now make. Pin the ends of the width to the ends of the 
front yoke. Pull your gathering thread until the full- 
ness fits the yoke ; then move the gathers along until 
they fall evenly. Can you not distribute the gathers 
carefully, as you pin them to the yoke ? Hold the 
gathers towards you, and baste with a one-fourth inch 
seam, not any more. Now sew securely with the strong 
stitching stitch, which you used on the bean bags. 



LEARNING TO SEW 39 

To place the yoke lining. You are ready now to 
cover these rough edges of the seam with the lining. 
Turn in one-fourth of an inch to match the width of 
the seam taken from the yoke. Baste flat to the seam 
so that the edge of the turned lining just covers the 
sewing of the yoke seam. Finish with a neat hemming 
stitch. 

Do you not think you can join the two back portions 
of the yoke to the skirt portions of the apron without 
any further help ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Find three places where you think running and back stitch 
can be used. 

2. Notice other places where gathers are drawn in to fit a space. 
Mollie Stark discovered several places on the garments worn by the 
children at school. 

Lesson 9 

how to make a buttonhole 

The apron is now entirely finished, except for fastenings. Shall 
we learn to make a buttonhole, and how to sew on buttons ? 
The Pleasant Valley girls had a contest. Barbara Oakes won a 
prize at the Pleasant Valley County Fair. 

Practice in making the buttonhole. Long ago 
little girls were taught to make buttonholes, when 
they were five or six years of age. Grandmother Allen 
learned at that age. Surely by the time a girl is twelve 
years old she should begin to learn how to make 
buttonholes. One must practice on a scrap of cloth, 



4 o 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



before making the buttonhole on the garment, 
are the steps to consider in practicing : 



These 



1. Decide about placing the buttonhole. Is it to be in a vertical 
or horizontal position on the garment ? How far from the edge ? 

2. Cutting. 

3. Overcasting the cut edges. How deep and how far apart to 
take the stitches. Correct position to hold work. 

4. Making buttonhole stitch along one edge. 

5. Turning corner. 

6. Turning and buttonholing opposite edge. 

7. Finishing second end. 

Placing the buttonhole. It is important to place 
the buttonhole correctly. In some garments, where 

there is no strain, as in the front 
of a shirtwaist or of loose corset 
cover, the buttonholes can be 
made to run up and down. One 
should decide how far from the 
edge and exactly where the but- 
tonhole is needed. Mark the 
place with pinholes. For the 
apron place three buttonholes 
in the yoke, one in middle and 
others near each end, about one- 
fourth inch from the edge of the 
yoke at center back. 
Cutting the buttonhole. One should cut truly and 
exactly, on a thread. If a pair of buttonhole scissors is 
not available, fold the material halfway between the pin 




Fig. 27. 



Cutting the button- 
hole. 



LEARNING TO SEW 41 

pricks which marked its location, so that the pin passes 
through both ends of the located buttonhole. Cut 
from the folded edge to the pin, by placing the fold well 
within the opened scissors and cutting evenly (Fig. 27). 
For the apron cut one-half inch -buttonholes and one- 
fourth of an inch in from the edge. 

Overcasting the buttonhole. You have not all 
learned the overcasting stitch. Practice it on a scrap 




VT\TVT\ W 



Fig. 28. — The overcasting stitch for rough edges. 

of cloth. Look at the picture (Fig. 28) carefully. 
The overcasting stitch is used on edges to prevent 
raveling. Hold the buttonhole along the top of the 
first finger. Begin without knot, and at the end 
farthest away from a finished edge ; as at the end of 
skirt band or edge of waist. Work over end of thread. 
Point needle toward left shoulder to make a slanting 
stitch. Make about three or four stitches on each 



42 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

side of the buttonhole (Fig. 29). The depth should 
be about one-eighth of an inch. The corner stitches 
should be taken so that the needle is pointed at right 
angles to the cut before the buttonhole is turned. 
Do not forget that, after one side is overcast, it is 
necessary to turn the buttonhole around so the other 
cut edge may be overcast. 




Fig. 29. — Overcasting the cut buttonhole. 

Making the buttonhole stitch. When the button- 
hole has been overcast, the needle should be in position 
at the beginning of the buttonhole where the overcast- 
ing was started. Point the needle at right angles to 
the edge, and take a stitch one-eighth of an inch deep 
(Fig. 30). Hold buttonhole so that it lies flat on top 
of the first finger. Do not spread it open. Throw 
the double thread from the eye of the needle, around 
the point, in the same direction as the buttonhole is 
being worked, from right to left. Draw needle through, 



LEARNING TO SEW 



43 



pulling the thread at right angles to and toward 
the cut edge of the buttonhole. A little finishing 
loop called the purl will be formed at the edge. 
It is this which prevents the edge of the button- 
hole from wearing. Continue along one edge until the 
corner is reached. Remember all stitches are to be 
the same depth and to have about the space of a thread 
between stitches, and the purl is to lie exactly on the 
edge. 



r N N N \J 


JJi 1 I 1 1 



Fig. 30. — The buttonhole stitch. 

Turning the corner. There are several ways of finish- 
ing the corners of buttonholes. They may have two 
fan ends, or one fan and one bar, or two barred ends. 
How can we tell which way to plan ? A barred end is 
stronger than one which has only a fan. One must 
judge how the buttonhole is to be used, and then make 
the proper combination of ends. The picture (Fig. 
31) shows both the fan and the bar. The fan is made 
with the same buttonhole stitch. Five stitches make 



44 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



a good fan. The third one is taken on a line with the 
cut and is the deepest, and the two stitches each side 

are slanting and of a depth 
to make an even fan effect 
at the turn. The fan can 
be made more easily by turn- 
ing the buttonhole so that 
the end to be worked with 
the fan is pointed towards 
the worker and the cut edge 
is over the finger. 

Buttonholing second side. 
After making the fan, turn 
the buttonhole, and along 
the second side make the 
buttonhole stitch of the 
same depth and evenness 
as along the first side. 

Finishing second end. 
Practice a bar end. Turn 
buttonhole so that the end 
to be finished lies across 
finger with fan end towards 
the worker. Make two or 
three small stitches one 
over the other to bar the 
end, these to extend across width of buttonhole stitches. 
Over these the blanket stitch is to be placed. This 
is very easy. Look at the picture (Fig. 82) of it 




Fig. 31. — The fan end and the bar 
end of the buttonhole. 




LEARNING TO SEW 45 

on page 138. These stitches are to be taken close 

together and through the cloth, around the three 

barred stitches. This makes a firm finish. Point 

the needle towards the worker and make a straight 

row of blanket stitches. 

Sewing on a button. Start with a double 

thread, and make two stitches one over the 

other on the right side of the garment. String 

a button on the needle, to cover starting 

stitches. Place a pin on top of the button. Fig. 32.— 

Sew over it with stitches crossed back and prevent" 

forth through the holes of the button. The the but " 

stitches should be taken so that the pull of being 

the button will come on the warp threads of sewed t . ° 

• 1 1 • 1 near tne 

the garment. On the wrong side, the stitches doth and 

should appear in parallel bars lying on the * l a l c ° "J 
woof or filling thread. On the top of the button- 
button, the stitches should cross. Why is it garment. 6 
necessary to sew over the pin ? Remove the 
pin and wind thread around the stitches under the 
button. Finish on wrong side with several finishing 
stitches. 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Practice overcasting. 

2. Practice blanket stitch. 

3. Practice making buttonhole. 

a. Cutting. d. Fan. 

b. Overcasting. e. Buttonholing. 

c. Buttonholing. /. Bar. 



4 6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



4. Practice sewing on one button at home and making one 
buttonhole. 

5. Bring to school garments which need buttons. Sew the 
buttons on. 

Lesson 10 



THE USE OF THE COMMERCIAL PATTERN 

Have you ever bought a real pattern and tried to use it ? Mar- 
jorie Allen says she thinks sometimes it is quite like a puzzle. Let 
us learn how to cut our petticoats from a real pattern. 

Can you cut a pattern ? Perhaps you have cut pat- 
terns for sister's dolls' clothing (Fig. 33). This is prob- 
ably how you did it. You 
pinned the paper to the 
doll's body or held it in 
place while you cut around 
the armhole, across the 
shoulder, under the chin 
for the curved neck, and 
then you cut the other 
shoulder and armhole in 
the same way. Under the 
arm you made a slanting 
/// cut towards the feet so 

Fig. 33. — Learning to cut a free-hand the dreSS Or apron WOuld 

be wider at the bottom. 
Try this if you have never done it. It is good fun. 
Marjorie dressed a doll for little Alice when she was 
sick, and cut the pattern in this way. This is a free 




LEARNING TO SEW 47 

and easy way to make patterns. Some dressmakers 
make patterns in this way and do not have to send 
to the store for a pattern. 

Shall we send for a pattern ? Patterns are bought 
by age or by measure : a nightdress, drawers, or a 
skirt pattern is ordered for fourteen year age ; a shirt- 
waist for 34 inch bust measure. Patterns sometimes 
give other measures ; a dress skirt may state the 
waist measure, the length of skirt, and the measure 
around the hips. For children and for young girls, 
the patterns can nearly always be bought according 
to age ; but, as some girls are large for their age and 
some small, Miss James will have to help order the 
right sizes. 

Many good magazines offer patterns for sale. There 
are, also, stores or firms which make a business of sell- 
ing nothing but patterns. Some patterns are better 
than others. The simplest are usually the best, if 
the figure and its proportions have been kept in mind. 

Let us open our skirt pattern. We have bought 
two: one a 12-year size, and one a 14-year. The 
smaller girls may use the 12-year size, and the larger 
girls the 14-year size. How many pieces are there 
for this pattern ? Barbara stood before the class, and 
Julia held the pieces where she thought they would 
belong in the skirt. Yes, surely the strip is for the 
belt or band. Is it long enough? No, only half. 
What are the other two pieces ? Yes, one is for the 
back. Is it large enough ? No, only half. Only one 



4 8 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



piece is left. It must be the front. Is it large enough ? 
Many patterns are made, giving only half a front or 
half a belt. Such pieces must be cut double when you 

wish to have the front or belt in 
one piece. The way to do this is 
to pin the pattern on a folded 
edge of the cloth. We will know 
if we consult the perforations on 
the pattern, and the printed di- 
rections. We must do this, then, 
in cutting the front. Let us hold 
the pattern to the light. What 
do you see ? Why do you sup- 
pose the little holes or perfo- 
rations have been arranged in 
groups or straight rows ? Bar- 
bara said she could not under- 
stand why. It is all a secret 
which the description on the 
pattern will tell. To-day we shall 
£ learn two things : 

Fig. 34- Laying the pattern j fJ ow tQ te jl wn i C h portion 

on the cloth. Which do you . 11 

think is the fold edge, a of the pattern is to be placed on 
orB - the warp of the cloth. 

2. When to place the half pattern on a folded edge, 
so as to cut the portion in one piece instead of in half 
a piece like the pattern. 

The pattern may say the long line of single perfora- 
tions is to be placed on the warp threads. Can you 




LEARNING TO SEW 49 

do that when we begin to cut ? You will have to be 
careful to find the warp and to lay the pattern exactly. 
The pattern may say the group of three little perfora- 
tions or holes at the edge of the front pattern means 
that edge is to be placed on a straight fold of the cloth. 

It is wise always to study all the pieces of a pattern. 
The parts are usually numbered. Can you see how ? 
The description on the pattern tells the name of each 
piece. Very often only half of a portion is given. You 
will always remember now what must be done when 
that occurs. 

It is a good thing always to know each portion and 
to hold it up to the person to see if it is too large or 
too small. Then you will understand the parts, before 
you begin to cut. Sometimes it is necessary to add to 
the length or to shorten the pattern. Some patterns 
say allow for seams in cutting, and others say seams 
have been allowed. What difference will this make 
when you begin to cut ? 

Shall we learn to take a few measurements ? 
Then we can judge if our pattern is too large or 
too small. It will also help you in sending for 
patterns. 

The bust measure is easy to take. Pass the tape 
measure under the arms, and over the fullest part of 
the bust, not too tight ; bring it to the center of the 
back, sloping the tape slightly upward between the 
shoulder blades. 

The waist measure is a snug measure around the 



50 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

smallest part of the waist. For girls this measure 
should not be too snug. 

The skirt measures are taken from the waist line to 
the floor at the front, at the sides over the hips, and 
at the back. For short skirts one must deduct from 
the full lengths the number of inches desired from the 
floor. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Open a pattern and see if you can tell the different parts. 
Which are to be cut on a folded edge ? How are you to tell which 
way the pattern is to lie on the warp threads ? 

2. Practice taking a skirt measure ; then, a waist measure. 

Lesson ii 
taking measurements and cutting out the petticoat 

We understand our skirt patterns. Let us take our skirt 
measures, front and back, and, if it is necessary to change our 
pattern, we will decide how much to add or take off before cutting 
the garments. 

To change pattern. If you must add two or three 
inches to the length of your pattern, this must be done 
as you cut. Or possibly you may wish to shorten the 
pattern. If you wish to shorten it, take a plait of one 
inch about in the middle of your pattern, crease, and 
pin it. By taking this plait rather than cutting off 
the amount from the bottom, the good flare of the 
skirt is saved. Do you know what these pieces of the 
skirt are called which are wider at the bottom than 



LEARNING' TO SEW 



5i 



at the top ? Why is a gore made such a shape ? Can 
you think of the advantages ? In cutting from a 
pattern in which a plait has been laid, one must be 
careful to carry the outline of the pattern evenly at 
the place where the fold of the plait comes. 

To lengthen a pattern. Make a straight cut across 
a gore about the middle from side to side. Pin or 
paste a strip of paper the 
desired extra length be- 
tween the two pieces. 
This preserves the bottom 
flare. If length were 
added at the bottom, the 
flare would be too great. 

To cut the skirts. One 
must study carefully the 
economical use of ma- 
terial. It is like a puzzle 
to fit the pattern to the 
cloth, so that the perfo- 
rations are obeyed exactly and there is enough cloth 
for all the parts. 

The girls of Pleasant Valley have decided to make 
the petticoats for the children at the summer home. 
The ladies of the board furnished the materials. They 
have chosen gingham for some and outing flannel for 
others. The belts are to be made of muslin. The 
material is all one yard wide. By folding the outing 
flannel selvedge to selvedge, and placing the triple 




Fig. 35. 



The petticoat for the children 
of the home. 



52 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

perforations of the pattern of the front gore on this 
fold, the front can be cut all in one piece. It is rather 
a circular gore. Not all gores are the same shape. 
See if you can find other shaped gores in dress skirts. 
The two back gores of the skirt can be cut from an- 
other width. Be sure to obey the directions for placing 
the perforations on the warp. How many lengths of 
cloth are needed to cut such a skirt ? How much will 
you allow for hems at the bottom ? As the girls of 
Pleasant Valley had decided on two inches finished, 
they allowed 2\ inches extra in cutting. One must 
always think about this. All seams have been allowed 
on their patterns. 

Be sure to lay all the pieces of the pattern on the 
cloth before cutting. Find a flat surface. Remember 
that the wide end of a gore is apt to cut to better 
advantage at the end of the piece of cloth. Can the 
gores he fitted so as to cut more economically ? 
(Fig. 34.) Pin the parts carefully, not using too many 
pins. Mark all the notches with pencil, chalk, or 
basting thread. Do not cut notches ; one is liable to 
be careless and to make them too large. Use long cuts, 
and make even edges in cutting. Good shears help. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Draw on the blackboard different shaped dress gores which 
you have noticed. 

2. With the tiny patterns of the skirt which your teacher has 
cut, show how to lay them most economically on the red muslin 
which represents your material. 



LEARNING TO SEW 53 

3. What would you do if you were using a pattern which did not 
allow for seams ? 

Lesson 12 

making the petticoats 
Let us begin to sew the petticoats. 

Notice all the notches which were marked lightly 
with pencil, and follow all the steps carefully : 

1. Place the two back portions so that they join 

the front as the notches indicate. 

2. Pin from the top of the gores. 

3. Baste the three gores together with ^-inch seams, 

beginning at the bottom. Can you tell why ? 

4. Sew the seams on the wrong side, using the 

stitching stitch. The back seam is to be left 
open five inches at the top for the placket 
opening. 

5. Overcast all the seam edges, overcasting the two 

thicknesses of the seams together. 

6. Turn hems at the bottom of the skirt. First, 

turn J inch ; second, turn two inches. Baste 
carefully, laying little plaits neatly where neces- 
sary on account of extra fullness. Always have 
the seams of the turned hem lie on seams of 
skirt. Sew hem with hemming stitch or feather- 
stitch (see page 120). 

7. Finish placket opening. On right side make 

^-inch hem, the first turn -J- and second -J- 
inch. Turn hem to inside of skirt. Baste 



54 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



and hem. On left side of opening make hem I 
inch finished. Make first turn J and second 
| inch. Baste and hem neatly. 
To put the skirt on the band : 

A. Cut band. Take waist measure ; add to it 

one inch for lapping and two inches for 
the turnings, one at each end of band. Cut 
band lengthwise of the muslin, with the 
warp threads, and twice the desired width 
finished plus \ inch for turnings. 

B. Gather petticoat J inch from edge, with two 

gathering threads one below the other. 
Divide skirt in half; gather from center 
front to back at right side, and from center 
front to back at left side. 

C. Turn in ends of band one inch. Pin center of 

band to center front of petticoat, right 
side of band to right side of petticoat. Pin 
so that the edge of band is even with the 
gathered edge of skirt. Pin ends of band 
to the gathered back portions of skirt, with 
ends of bands to ends of gathers. Turn 
gathers towards worker, and distribute in 
same manner as when attaching yoke of 
apron to the apron skirt. Baste \ inch 
from edge of band, and between the two 
rows of gathering stitches. Sew with stitch- 
ing stitch. Turn band over to wrong side. 
Turn in \ inch. Baste and hem flat. Over- 



LEARNING TO SEW 55 

hand the turned-in ends of the band 
neatly. 
D. Finish with buttonhole and button at back, 
or with two buttonholes, to button to 
waist. If the skirt is to be attached 
in this way, a buttonhole should be made 
in the center front of the band also. 
This should be up and down in the band. 

The girls of Pleasant Valley had a surprise party, 
when the aprons were finished, and went to the Fresh 
Air Home. This was in June before school closed. 
Some of the summer children had arrived. The girls 
made cookies at home and had a real party with the 
children. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Tell how the putting on of the skirt band differs from putting 
on the apron yoke. 

2. Do you know of any other kind of placket finish besides the 
one which you have made in the skirt ? Tell where you have 
seen it. 

REVIEW PROBLEMS 

I. Can you make a useful bag on which the following stitches 
might be used : basting, running, hemming, stitching stitch, over- 
handing, buttonhole ? 

II. Plan another article, using as many of these stitches as 
possible, and cutting the article from a pattern. Try to make 
this at home for school credit. Miss James of Pleasant 
Valley has a kind of score card which she uses in marking 
the girls. Perhaps your teacher will give you credit for your 
home work. 



56 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



SCORE CARD 



Girl's name - . 

I. Article 

A. General appearance 

i. General neatness of sewing io % 

2. Cleanliness 15% 

3. Appropriateness of material 25% 

B. Hand work 

1. Regularity of stitches 25% 

2. Suitability of stitches 2g % 

100% 




CHAPTER II 

THE GIRLS OF PLEASANT VALLEY SCHOOL LEARN 
TO MAKE SIMPLE GARMENTS 



This year the girls of the Sewing League of Pleasant 
Valley will receive credit for the garments they make. 
Miss James will help the girls to start the garments at 
school and will give full credit if the work is completed 
neatly. A nightdress, a petticoat, corset cover, or 
under slip, and perhaps a white summer dress skirt will 
be made. The school board has just furnished a 
machine, so Miss James is planning to teach the girls 
to use it. Many of them can practice at home too. 
Mrs. Stark, who has two machines, told Mollie she might 
bring the girls at any time for practice. Can you plan 
to learn to stitch at your school ? There are many 
things one does not wish to sew by hand, and does not 
have time to make in that way. Not long ago Miss 
Travers, who came from the State Agricultural College 
to speak to the Mothers' Club at Pleasant Valley, told 
them that often people do not use good common sense 
about this question. She said there are times when 

57 



58 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

one wishes to make garments and articles by hand, but 
it is foolish to do so when one has other duties in life 
to perform which are more important. Handmade 
garments are very beautiful to look at, but when they 
mean the sacrifice of health, because one has remained 
indoors to make them, they appear less beautiful. 
Miss Travers and the mothers had a long discussion 
about the wages paid in large cities to women who do 
this fine work. Miss Travers said the wage paid is 
usually very low. 

Lesson i 

some cotton materials suitable for underwear 

Suppose you order the muslin for your nightdress and, while 
waiting for it to arrive, learn about the cotton materials which can 
be used for underwear. Can you add a whole page of white 
materials to your textile books ? 

Suppose you open the surprise box on your teacher's 
desk. It is quite full. Let us sort the samples and 
examine the white ones, especially, to-day ; for your 
underwear is to be made of white cotton material. 
Let us look also at the ones which are almost white. 
They are unbleached white ; the others have been 
bleached with a chemical to make them look so snowy 
white. They have been dipped in a bath of chloride 
of lime, and then in another bath of water and sulphuric 
acid, until the material has become white. 

Do you know how our grandmothers used to bleach 
sheets and other unbleached articles which they wished 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 59 

to have white ? Grandmother Allen used to bleach 
those she made on her hand loom. Why did they place 
them on the grass in the sun ? What bleached them ? 
This unbleached sample is muslin; it is for sheets. 
Here is some white which is of the same plain weave. 
The unbleached is cheaper. It comes one yard wide 
and can be bought for 5 cents and, in better qualities, 
up to 15 cents per yard. It wears very well — better 
than bleached muslin. Can you tell why ? It is used 
for sheets and pillowcases. We may later make a pair 
of pillowcases from this unbleached muslin. The white 
muslin can be bought in a cheap quality for 7 cents a 
yard ; and it may also be bought in finer qualities. 
Here is a piece of Alpine rose muslin from our sample 
box. Isn't that a pretty name for it ? It is soft and 
much finer, and costs 30 cents a yard. Bleached 
muslins come in width from 36 to 72 inches. The wide 
width is used for sheetings and is woven that width that 
no seam may be necessary through the center of the 
sheet. 

This soft, light cotton material is called nainsook. 
Isn't that a queer name ? It is from an old Hindoo 
word for a material made and used in India. Nainsook 
is used for underwear and clothing for baby. It comes 
in several grades. Miss James has some coarser 
samples, too. It is soft and is nearly always finished, 
when woven, with very little dressing or starch to 
stiffen it. It comes 27 inches in width and varies in 
price from 15 to 50 cents a yard. 



60 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

This soft crinkly looking material is called cotton 
crepe. It is used a great deal for underwear and for 
shirt waists or dresses. It is considered very economi- 
cal. Does any one know why ? Yes, because it is 
easily washed and, when hung out in the fresh air and 
sunshine, does not need to be ironed. Think of all the 
time saved. The little crinkles dry in place and look 
well. It costs from 12 to 15 cents per yard, and comes 
about 30 inches wide. 

This piece is a cambric. It is a firm plain weave and 
is good for underwear. This quality is fine, and its 
name is Berkeley cambric. Some grades of cambric 
are coarser and are called cambric muslin. They are 
glazed and smooth in finish, and are used for linings and 
for other purposes. That name is also foreign, from 
Cambrai, France. Cambric is woven a yard wide and 
costs from 10 to 25 cents per yard. It is very durable 
material for underwear, not quite so heavy as muslin, 
and strong. 

Dimity is thin. Look at this piece. Mollie had a 
dress made of it last summer. It is sheer and light, 
and has little cords or ribs. It is always easy to recog- 
nize on that account. It is used for summer dresses, 
sometimes for dainty underwear ; but it is not suitable 
for underwear which must have hard usage every day. 
It costs from 15 to 50 cents per yard and is woven about 
a yard wide. Sometimes it comes in colors and also 
with pretty printed figures on it. See, here are some 
printed ones. What dainty patterns and colors ! 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 61 

Would you like a dress of one of these ? Miss James 
has found two other thin, sheer, white ones. There are 
so many I wonder if we can remember all. This thin 
one is lawn and is a plain weave. It comes in inexpen- 
sive qualities at 5 cents and in better qualities for 25 
cents. The width varies from 36 to 40 inches. Do 
you know of anything at home or in school, made of 
lawn ? Yes, dresses, aprons, curtains. It comes in 
colors too.; here is a pretty blue. It is smooth and 
starched and pressed when one buys it. 

This other is soft but not so starched. It is called 
mull. That is a Hindoo word, too. Do you remember 
that cotton was grown in India many years before we 
had it in America ; that is why the cotton materials so 
often have Indian names. Mull is too fine for under- 
wear, but it is used for pretty white dresses. 

Here are two heavy white samples ; one is called 
Indian head, and the other duck. Such strange 
names ! Do you know their uses ? Perhaps your 
mother had a skirt last summer of duck or Indian Head. 
Mrs. Alden of Pleasant Valley had one. Both these 
cotton materials wear well. The duck is used for 
men's trousers, also ; and in very heavy qualities, it 
is used for sails or tents and awnings. John Alden's 
first long trousers were made of duck. How important 
he felt ! Duck is sometimes colored blue or other 
colors. It varies in width from 27 to 36 inches and costs 
from 12 cents up. The Indian head is used for the 
same purposes as duck and comes in the same width for 



62 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



about the same price, — 15 cents a yard up, according 
to quality. 

We shall have time to study about only two more to- 
day. They are both heavy. This is galatea, and comes 
in white, like this sample, or in colors. It is firm like 
duck and Indian head. Can you tell for what it is 

used ? Have you ever 
seen any before ? It is 
used for dress skirts, and 
very often for girls' middy 
blouses or children's 
clothes. It washes very 
well. It is 27 inches wide 
and costs from 14 to 25 
cents a yard. 

The last sample is cot- 
ton birds eye or huckaback. 
It is sold by the yard or 
by the piece. It costs 
less per yard to buy it by 
the piece of 10 yards. 
It varies in cost, according to quality, and is woven from 
18 to 27 inches wide. We also have huckaback towels 
made of cotton or linen or a mixture of cotton and linen. 
Here is one which Miss James uses at school (Fig. 36). 
I wonder who can go to the board and make a list of 
all the new white material we have found in the surprise 
box. Shall we put them in our sample book ? Who 
will write the use of each, opposite the name ? If you 




Fig. 36. 



A towel which Miss James uses 
at school. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 63 

cannot remember the prices and widths, look on the 
samples ; many are marked, especially those which 
have come from the town store. Which do you think 
will be best for your nightgowns ? Yes, cambric, 
nainsook, or muslin. Which will be softest and light- 
est ? Which is the heaviest of these three ? Shall 
we use the muslin ? It is strong and will wear well. 
Shall we choose this piece ? It is 10 cents a yard. 
How much shall we need ? We shall talk about it next 
lesson. Any one who wishes to use the unbleached 
muslin which costs 7 cents, may do so ; or the finer 
nainsook which is 15 cents a yard. How can the 
unbleached be made white as it is used ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Look up the story of how cloth is bleached in any of the 
library books on textiles, or in the encyclopedia. 

2. Add six cotton materials you have just studied about, to your 
textile sample books. 

3. Decide what kind of white material you wish to use for your 
nightdress. 

Lesson 2 

selecting pattern and cloth for nightdress 

Suppose you decide about the pattern for your nightdresses, 
and send for the cloth and pattern. 

A kimono nightdress. Miss James has a book of 
patterns ; perhaps your teacher has. Let us look 
at them. Here are the nightdresses. This picture 



6 4 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



(Fig. 37) is a kimono nightdress ; that means the sleeves 
are cut with the gown all in one, not made separately 
and sewed in. This name kimono is Japanese and means 
a loose garment. The picture shows a Pleasant Valley 
girl in a kimono nightdress. Miss James says there is 

only one piece to this pat- 
tern and the nightdress is 
easy to make. The way 
to measure for the amount 
of material for such a 
gown is to take the length 
from the shoulder at the 
side of the neck to the 
floor and add three inches 
for a hem. This gown 
can be cut without any 
shoulder seams, all in one 
piece. So you will need 
twice the length from 
shoulder to floor and hem. 
Why ? If the cloth is one 
yard or more wide, it will 
not be necessary to piece the gown ; so be sure to choose 
material which is a yard wide. Is there any one now 
who does not know how to measure for the material for 
the kimono nightdress ? Let all write an order for a 
kimono nightdress pattern and for the muslin. Take 
each other's measures first and add together the amount 
of cloth needed. It will be easier to send one order for 




Fig. 37. — A Pleasant Valley girl in a 
kimono nightdress. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 65 

all. The best letter will be chosen to send to the store. 
As some girls are large and some small for their ages, 
it will be wise to order one pattern 12-year size, and 
another 14-year size. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

I. How much cloth will be needed for a kimono nightdress if 
the measure of the girl from shoulder to floor is 55 inches ? How 
much do you suppose the Pleasant Valley girl in the picture needed ? 

Lesson 3 

how cotton cloth is woven 

Not long ago we learned how the cotton plant furnishes us with 
cotton for clothing. There are many people who help in changing 
the cotton from fiber to cloth. While you are waiting for the cotton 
material and the pattern, shall we study how cotton cloth is made ? 

Cotton is used for many things. We learned that 
cotton is shipped in bales of 500 pounds each from the 
United States to all parts of the world. The manu- 
facturer receives it at the factory and changes it by 
many processes into what he wishes to sell. Some 
manufacturers make only cotton threads of various 
kinds, for sewing, knitting, and crocheting. Others 
make cotton cloth of one variety or of several varieties. 
We know there are many kinds manufactured. Others 
make absorbent cotton, gauze, and such things for 
surgical use for the sick. Some make hosiery, gloves, 
towels ; and others make knitted underwear, or laces 



66 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



and embroideries. Others use cotton for war purposes, 
for guncotton. John Alden said he did not know 
that cotton is used for so many things. 

The loom for weaving cotton. We have learned 
that cloth is made of threads which run lengthwise, 

called the warp threads, 



and of crosswise threads, 
called the filling or woof. 
The machine for holding 
the threads and doing the 
work is called a loom. 
What is the firm edge 
which is woven called ? 
Look at Miss James' little 
loom (Fig. 38). It shows 
the warp, and the filling 
yarn as it passes over and 
under and makes the firm 
edge as it turns each trip 
back and forth around the 
edge threads. If you have 
never woven a piece of 
material, suppose you take 
a box cover and make a 







Fig. 38. — Miss James' little loom. 



small loom. The picture (Fig. 39) shows one made at 
Pleasant Valley School. Did you ever see your 
grandmother weave on a loom ? Look at the picture 
(Fig. 40) of a grandmother weaving on a cloth loom. 
It is not Grandmother Allen, although she knows how 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



67 



to weave. The warp threads are rolled up on a big 
roller at the back of the loom and are extended to the 
cloth roller at the front near where she sits. She holds 
the filling thread in her hand. It is wound on a bobbin 
which fits in the shuttle. She throws the shuttle from 
side to side and works her 
feet to alternate the warp 
threads, in order that the 
filling thread may go over 
and under, and make the 
cloth. Look at the shuttle 
in the picture (Fig. 41) ; it 
holds the bobbin of thread. 
There are many kinds of 
looms. To-day cloth is 
woven on looms run by 
machinery. It is much 
easier and quicker than 
working by hand, and so 
cotton cloth can be made 
more cheaply. Frank 
Allen says he saw a loom 
at the silk factory he 
visited. If it were not for machines, our clothes would 
cost much more than they do. Think of all the people 
who help to give us our cotton clothes, from the planter 
who sows the seed to the manufacturer whose men pre- 
pare and weave it. Have you ever visited a cloth fac- 
tory and seen the many machines and heard the great 




Fig. 39. 



A small loom made from a 
box cover. 



68 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



buzzing noise which they make ? It is a busy place. 
Some factories make only warp, or filling, yarns. They 




Courtesy of Draper Co. , Hopedale, Mass. 
Fig. 40. — "In days gone by." 

are called spinning factories or mills (Fig. 46). They 
send their product to the other manufacturers who 
have only weaving machines for making the yarns into 
cloth. It is about 130 years (1789) since the first cotton 

mill was started in the United 
States, and only a few years 
longer since the first mill was 
started in England. Before 
that time, people of different 
countries made their own looms according to the ways 
they thought out. As men felt the need of clothing to 




Fig. 41. — The shuttle holding the 
bobbin of yarn. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



69 



wear, they tried to make cloth ; and we find all kinds 
of primitive looms as their invention. Can you look 
up the meaning of primitive ? Notice the two pictures 
(Figs. 43 and 44) of primitive people weaving. The 
Indian girl is holding the shuttle in her right hand ; 





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||f 


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. 




1 3 - 

1 --#*; 




- ' ' r' ¥ ^ ^ •> ^^^ 


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Courtesy of Draper Co., Hopedale, Mass. 
Fig. 42. — A weaving room in a modern factory. 



the loom is fastened to something and is also attached 
at her belt. In that way the warp threads are held 
securely while she passes the filling back and forth. On 
page 136 you will find a picture (Fig. 81) of a Japanese girl 
weaving silk. Notice the loom ; find the roller holding 
the warp yarn. Find the shuttle which she uses to throw 
the filling yarn. Can you tell where she rolls the cloth 



7° 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



as it is woven ? Under her elbows in the picture is a 
cloth roller on which she rolls up the woven cloth as she 
weaves and unrolls the warp from the warp roller. 
Isn't this a wonderful story ? We have not yet learned 




Courtesy of Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Fig. 43. — Indian girl weaving a belt by hand. 

how the cotton is made into the warp and filling ready 
to be woven. We shall save that part of the story for 
to-morrow. The Pleasant Valley girls and boys en- 
joyed this part of the story about cotton and are 
anxious for Miss James to tell some more. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



7i 




Fig. 44. — Another primitive loom and a girl spinning. The distaff with the wool 
for spinning is held under the girl's arm. 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

i. Try to make a simple loom. Take a piece of cardboard 
10 X 12 inches. Make a row of holes about J inch apart one 
inch from the top ; another row \ inch apart one inch from bottom. 
String the warp back and forth from hole to hole so it looks like 
the picture (Fig. 39). Weave a piece of cloth with the filling 
thread which goes over and under. 

2. Visit a weaving factory if you can. • 

3. See if you can spin a piece of carded wool. Perhaps you can 
card some wool with the hand cards which your great grandmother 
used, as the Pleasant Valley girls did. 

4. Try to collect pictures of spinning. The primitive peoples 
did this in different ways. 



72 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Lesson 4 



THE SPINNING OF COTTON INTO YARN 

How the manufacturer turns the cotton into yarn ready for 
the weaver. This is called spinning. Shall we study how it is 
done ? 

Perhaps there is some one in your class who has 
visited a spinning mill and can tell how cotton is cleaned 
and made ready for weaving. This is what the girls 
of the Sewing League of Pleasant Valley saw the day 
they went to visit the mill. The Camp Fire girls went 
the same day, and Miss Ashly, their guardian, said 
that what they learned would count as an honor. 

How cotton is prepared for spinning. The girls 
went to the lower floor where the cotton is received. 

They saw the 
bags and iron 
bands removed 
and the cotton 
pulled apart by 
a queer machine 
called a cotton 
opener, or bale 
breaker, for you 
remember the cot- 
ton was pressed 
very hard before 
being shipped. The cotton is then placed in pickers, 
or machines which blow it apart and blow out the 




Fig. 45. 



The cotton carding machine, which cleans 
the cotton. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



73 



leaves and dust and dirt. As the cotton leaves this 
machine, it looks like a big piece (6 ft. wide) of cotton 
batting rolled in a large roll. It looks soft and clean. 
Then the girls watched the men place this roll at the 
back of the next machine, called a carding machine 




Courtesy oj Leonard & Green, Boston. 
Fig. 46. — A cotton spinning room. 

(Fig. 45). Here it was cleaned some more; and such 
a wonderful thing happened. As it left the machine 
instead of coming out as a lap of the roll of cotton 
like it went in, it came out in a long thick coil which 
looked like a rope, and there were tall round cans 
ready to receive this continuous line of cotton rope. 
How soft and beautiful it looked ! What wonderful 



74 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



machines the manufacturer had. Some one must 
have made them. Can you find out who made 
the first loom run by machinery ? John Alden 
looked it up in the encyclopedia. Do you know 

who invented the first spinning 
machine ? 

Then the girls visited ever 
so many machines which wound 
this cotton rope on spools. 
Each machine made the rope 
thinner and finer until it was 
drawn out as thin and round 
as the manufacturer wished 
(Fig. 46). Barbara Oakes 
noticed this : that these spin- 
ning machines not only drew 
out the cotton rope and made 
it thinner, but put in a twist 
which prevented it from break- 
ing so easily. Do you re- 
member how the cotton fiber 
looked under the microscope ? 
The twist in the fiber helps 
in the spinning. Isn't it won- 
derful to think that such tiny 
fibers can be made into spinning yarns, and yarns 
woven into cloth ? . 

How cotton is spun. Did you ever see any one spin 
by hand ? One day the Girls' League went to Marjorie 




Fig. 47. — Grandmother Allen's 
wheel used for spinning wool. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



75 



Allen's grandmother's house. She took the girls to the 
attic and showed them her grandmother's spinning 
wheels (Fig. 47). There was a large one for spinning 
woolen yarn. This she called the great wheel. Then 
there was a small one called the flax wheel (Fig. 48) for 
spinning flax, or linen, 
into yarn for weaving. 
Grandmother sat down 
and showed them how 
to spin (Fig. 49). She 
pressed her foot on the 
treadle just like a sew- 
ing machine ; and the 
wheels went round. The 
flax was on a little holder 
called a distaff. See the 
pictures (Figs. 48 and 49) 
of the wheels. She held 
and drew the flax while 
the wheels of the machine 
put in the twist. That 
is just what the modern 
spinning machine does, but it can accomplish much 
more in an hour than grandmother did in a day. Still 
it is a great satisfaction to possess some of the beauti- 
ful old textiles spun and woven by grandmother's 
hands. The girls had the pleasure of opening a great 
chest in the attic and looking at the hand-woven sheets 
and coverlets which Grandmother Allen prizes so highly. 




Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museun of Art. 
Fig. 48. — The flax wheel. 



7 6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Barbara Oakes and Mollie Stark fairly clapped their 
hands and said, " How beautiful the colors are." The 
coverlets were made of wool and cotton yarns. Grand- 
mother showed the girls the hand cards which she used 
when a girl in helping her mother prepare wool into 
carded rolls for spinning. Do you remember that 




Courtesy of Miss Mary E. Hoag. 

Fig. 49. — Grandmother Allen sat at her flax wheel and showed the girls how to 

spin. 



the cotton at the factory passed through a carding 
machine to be cleaned and made into a cotton rope ? 
Grandmother told the girls she used to do the same 
for wool. She used the little hand cards and drew 
the boards with the fine teeth back and forth to 
clean the fibers, and then made little rolls for the 
great wheel to spin. The picture (Fig. 50) shows how 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



77 



the hand cards are used. Wasn't that a long, tedious 



process 



Perhaps at your school you can have an exhibit of 
old industrial things once used in the home. Maybe 
your grandmother has something in the attic — some 
cards, or wheels, or old hand-woven materials. If you 




Courtesy 0/ Miss Mary E. Hoag. 

Fig. 50. — Grandmother Allen carding wool by hand. 

have a Girls' Sewing League, the girls will, perhaps, 
send out invitations and invite the mothers and grand- 
mothers. The girls can prepare some coffee and 
cookies at school to serve the afternoon of the exhibit. 
The Pleasant Valley girls had such an afternoon en- 
tertainment and earned five dollars for their school 
fund. They will probably buy some dishes for the 
school lunch. 



78 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Try to find some pictures of very primitive spinning. Can 
you make a spindle ? 

2. What does the process of carding do to the cotton or wool ? 

3. Plan an exhibition of old coverlets and other old hand-woven 
textiles. Invite your parents and friends. 

Lesson 5 

cutting out a nightdress 

The patterns and muslin have probably arrived. Suppose you 
cut out your nightdress. 

Miss James kept a memorandum of the amounts 
of material needed by each girl for her gown, and she 
has divided the cloth. She has, also, cut with Barbara's 
help several patterns from the commercial pattern, 
so that all may begin to work at once. Miss James 
has had such nice boards arranged and fastened with 
hinges to the walls under the blackboards. They are 
so convenient for cutting and can be let down out of 
the way when not needed. 

Placing the pattern and cutting the material. Let us 
look at our patterns. Some girl will, perhaps, read 
aloud what the pattern says in the description printed 
on the outside or on the envelope of this commercial 
pattern. Who will hold up the nightdress pattern, 
showing how it is related to the figure ? Who can tell 
what the small group of dots on the edge means ? Who 
remembers how we can tell about laying the pattern 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



79 



correctly on the warp of the material ? Those two 
things are important; It is also necessary to plan so 
as to waste as little as possible. 
Some girls will find that their pat- 
terns are too long. Measure from 
the shoulder at the neck of your 
nightdress pattern, and see if it is 
longer or shorter than your measure. 
If the pattern is too long, fold up the 
necessary portion. If too short, do 
not forget you must allow extra when 
pinning the pattern on the cloth. 
How much of the whole nightdress 
does this pattern give ? If only one- 
half is given, the nightdress must be 
cut on a fold ; back and front in one 
with a hole for the neck, as it slips 
over the head. How shall we fold 
the cloth so as to cut on a fold ? 
Which edge of the pattern shall be 
placed on the fold ? Have you 
placed it most economically on the 
cloth ? Not an inch should be 
wasted. The pattern may or may 
not allow for seams. What will 
you do if it does not ? If you must 
add for your hem at the bottom, 
do not forget to mark, with a fine pencil mark, the 
allowance for hem beyond the pattern. So you see 




Fig. 51. — Laying the 
nightdress pattern on 
the cloth. 



80 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

there are many things to remember. Can you all cut 
out your nightdresses to-day and baste J-inch seams 
under the arms ? Pin your seams carefully before 
basting. Instead of the sharp angle under the arm, 
which the kimono nightdress usually gives, cut a good 
curve. Your teacher will help you. The curve makes 
a better line and is easier to finish. The pieces left 
must be rolled carefully, and your name must be written 
on the outside of the roll. We may need the pieces later. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Cut a free-hand pattern of a kimono nightdress for your doll. 

2. Show, with a piece of newspaper to represent the cloth, how 
the pattern can be placed economically. 

Lesson 6 

the parts of a sewing machine 

Shall we examine the new machine to-day and learn to run it ? 
You must practice before sewing your seams. 

Do you know that sewing machines were invented 
less than one hundred years ago ? Our great-grand- 
mothers had to do all their sewing by hand, and some 
of our grandmothers too. A man by the name of Elias 
Howe, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, first thought about 
the sewing machine ; and since then many different 
kinds have been invented, to be run by foot and also by 
mechanical power, — electricity. We have two kinds' of 
foot-power machines. One kind (Fig. 52) has only one 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



81 



thread, which is placed on a spool on top ; and the other 
(Fig. 53), the two-thread or double-thread, is like the one 
we have at school. The double-thread machine is called 
a lock-stitch machine, because one thread is on top on a 
spool and the other is on a little spool called a bobbin 




Courtesy of Wilcox and Gibbs Sewing Machine Co. 
Fig. 52. — Single thread machine. 

in the shuttle under the plate. The two threads lock 
together as the machine works. You will learn how 
later. The machine with only one thread on top is 
called a chain-stitch machine. The stitching made by- 
it rips very easily ; and the ends must be fastened 
carefully when one stops. The double-thread machine 
does not rip easily ; and one can stitch on either the 



82 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



right or wrong side of a garment. On the single- 
thread machine, one must stitch on the right side 
always. Let us look at a machine before learning to 
operate it. 

What parts do you find below the table ? What use 
is the connecting rod ? What does it connect ? Watch 
how your teacher puts her feet on the treadle. What 
makes the wheel above the table turn around ? 

You should practice 
running the machine first 
without any thread so as 
to learn to use the treadle 
well, and then with paper 
to see if you are holding 
it straight and making 
rows of pricks which are 
straight and even. If one 
cannot make rows of even 
pricks, it means the sew- 
ing will be crooked and must be ripped. Some of 
the Pleasant Valley girls practiced in this way at 
home. 

What do you find besides the wheel above the table ? 
The shaft has many parts. Can you name some ? 
Yes, the spool holder, which holds the spool ; the needle 
bar, which holds the needle and moves up and down ; 
the foot, which is called the presser foot and can be 
raised or lowered by the little handle ; the needle plate, 
through which the needle works ; the feed, which is like 



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Jr 


rt *r*fi&' 


gflKL 


13 









Courtesy of New Home Sewing Machine Co. 
Fig. 53. — Double-thread machine. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 83 

little rough teeth of a comb and helps to push the cloth 
along as one stitches. The little attachment near the 
wheel is for winding bobbins for the shuttle. The 
shuttle lies in the shuttle race under the plate. Suppose 
we move the plate and take it out. See, the bobbin is 
in the shuttle. This is the second thread. 

How do you regulate the machine ? Jane asked Miss 
James about the screws. There are usually two large 
ones on the double-thread machines which are important. 
One screw is to make the stitch larger or smaller ; we 
say, to regulate it. Miss James showed the girls how 
to do this. The second screw is to regulate the tight- 
ness of the thread. It is called a tension. Press your 
thumb and first finger tightly together and pass a thread 
between them. When you do not press very hard, the 
thread passes easily. When you press hard, it is 
difficult to draw the thread through, and the thread 
may break. Have you tried ? The tension is regulated 
by a screw which presses two little plates together. The 
thread passes between the plates. When they are loose 
like your fingers, the thread passes easily ; when tight, 
it breaks. So, in threading a machine, we must learn 
where the tension plates are, in order to pass the thread 
between them, and how the screw is turned to make the 
plates tight or loose. Your teacher will show you how 
to turn the screws. 

To-day, while some girls are finishing the basting, 
others may try to run the machine, in turn. This 
is what you are to do : 



84 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

i. Find all the parts whose names have been put 
on the blackboard, above table and below table. 

2. Learn to treadle evenly. 

3. Learn to raise and lower the presser foot on a piece 

of brown paper, and to stitch without thread. 
Keep the rows of pricks very even. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Study your machine. Find all the parts above the table; 
below the table. 

2. What is the purpose of a tension ? Show how it operates. 

3. Learn to stitch, without a thread, even rows of pricks on 
brown paper. 

4. See how much you can tell mother about the machine, when 
you go home. 

Lesson 7 

practice in threading and running the machine 

Let us learn to thread the double thread machine and practice 
stitching. This requires much care, but is not difficult. The 
Pleasant Valley girls enjoyed this lesson very much. 

As we learned, there are many different makes of 
sewing machines. All are based on the principles of the 
one invented by Mr. Howe. If we know the important 
points to remember in threading a machine, it will be 
very easy to follow the book of directions which comes 
with the machine. The names of some machines are 
the New Home, Domestic, Singer, Wilcox and Gibbs. 
Here are the things to think about in threading : 
1. Find the spool holder, and put the spool on it. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 85 

2. Find all the little eyes and holes through which 

the thread must pass. The book of directions 
will help. 

3. Find the tension. Be sure the thread passes 

between the tension plates and pulls evenly. 

4. Find the needle, and thread it from left to right, 

towards the wheel. 

5. Find the shuttle. Look at your book of direc- 

tions. 
Miss James helped Barbara to put the bobbin in its 
place, and to thread it into the shuttle. Ask your 
teacher to help you if you do not know how. 

6. Put the shuttle back in the shuttle holder. 

7. Turn the wheel and hold the upper thread. This 

will bring the under thread up through the 
little hole in the needle plate. 
Both threads should be on top before beginning to 
stitch. 

Now you are ready to begin to practice stitching with 
a thread. 

Try to remember these things, while stitching with 
a thread : 

1. To treadle evenly. 

2. To hold the material on the table at the left hand 

and to pass it on lightly. Do not pull it or push 
it with your left hand. 

3. To turn corners evenly. Have the needle down 

in cloth. Raise the presser foot and turn the 
work. Put the foot down and continue. 



86 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

4. Be sure to turn the wheel in the proper direction, 

or the thread will break. 

5. Practice stitching parallel rows. Make good 

square corners. Use some scraps of cloth for 
this sewing, and practice at home. 

Those who have not practiced on the machine may 
do so during study periods, if there is time. We can 
move the machine into the coat room. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Barbara Oakes does not turn good square corners on her 
practice piece. Why ? 

2. Marjorie says her thread breaks every time she starts. Why? 

3. Show some one how you can bring the under thread up 
through the needle plate, preparatory to stitching. 

4. Practice threading the machine, following book directions 
if you do not know how. 

5. Practice rows of good straight stitching. 

Lesson 8 

the french seam and its use 

What kind of seams shall we make on our nightdresses ? How 
shall we finish the bottom ? The Pleasant Valley girls did most 
of this at school in one lesson, but finished at home. 

Making French seams on the nightdress. We have 
learned that our dish towels had to be hemmed because 
of the raveling of material. Anything which is to be 
washed a great deal must have its raw edges finished 
in such a way that they will not ravel. As nightdresses 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 87 

are washed often, we must make our seams so that the 
edges will not pull out. Who can name other garments 
which are washed often ? Who can tell what we can 
do to prevent edges from fraying ? Yes, we might make 
small stitches, called overcasting, on the edge of a plain 
seam. There is another way, which we shall learn 
to-day. It is called a French seam. The French seam 
is sewed twice. The seam is basted as you have done, 



Fig. 54. — The French seam. First sewing near raw edges. 

on the right side of the garment ; seams are usually 
basted on the wrong side. Then, the seam is sewed 
close to the basting stitches. We shall sew ours by 
machine. The French seam is used on some garments 
made by hand. The first sewing (Fig. 54), then, is a tiny 
row of running stitches, close to the basting. After 
the first sewing, the basting should be removed and the 
edges trimmed to a | inch seam. This must be done 
carefully. Then, turn the garment to the wrong side. 
Press and pinch the seams evenly so that the sewing of 



88 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



the seam is exactly on top of the fold as you pinch it. 
Next, baste again \ inch from edge, and sew the second 
time, by machine. This seam is often used on dainty 
handmade underwear. Then, the second sewing is 
two runs and a back stitch, like that you used on your 
aprons, and is made by hand. What must we be careful 
about, then, in making the French seams on our night- 
dresses ? 




I f|l 




Fig. 55. — The French seam. Second sewing. 

Making the hem of the nightdress. How much was 
allowed for the hems at the bottom of the nightdresses ? 
Everybody knows how to turn a hem. The first turning 
is \ inch ; and the wide turning, 3 inches. All use your 
gauges or tape measures ; and turn and pin and baste 
carefully before stitching. Who can tell why the tiny 
plaits are necessary at the hem turning ? Where shall 
we lay them ? Yes, at the seams and between, if 
necessary. 

Now you will have plenty to do to finish seams and 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 89 

hem. The Pleasant Valley girls, after this lesson, 
finished theirs at home. 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Show on a practice piece how a French seam is made : 

a. By hand. 

b. By machine. 

2. Name some garments or articles on which the French seam 
might be used. Why ? 

3. What are the important things to remember in turning the 
hems at the bottom of the nightdresses ? 

Lesson 9 

protection for the body at night 

Do you know that clothes help to keep us well ? Mollie Stark 
wishes to know what kind of clothing should be worn at night. 

What should be done about clothing at night ? We 
have learned that, in order to keep well, we must think 
about the right kind of clothing as well as food. Grown 
people sometimes forget about this ; and growing 
girls and boys, too. The body must be kept clean ; and 
clothing worn next to it should also be kept clean at 
night as well as during the day. Who can remember 
how many pints of water the normal body gives off 
each day ? It loses about three pints in 24 hours. 
Can you recall what becomes of this waste ? Yes, 
some is evaporated, but some is collected by our clothes ; 
that is why they are soiled as they collect the perspira- 
tion and excretions, although often they do not look 



9° 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



soiled. The day garments should be hung up at night 
in a place where they will air and dry out by morning. 
They should not be shut up in a closet. Different 
clothing should be worn at night. A muslin night- 
dress, like those you are making, is usually suitable for 
six or seven months of the year ; but some of us who live 
in the country or in houses not well heated require 
warmer clothing at night. Old 
people and babies, as well as sick 
people, require more clothing be- 
cause they are not able to resist the 
cold as easily. Do you recall why ? 
What is the normal human body 
temperature ? Why is the human 
body called a machine ? 

If our day clothing collects waste 
and should be aired at night, what 
should be done with the night cloth- 

riG. 56. — I he clothing ° 

worn during the day frig during the day ? Yes, it should 
be well aired. Have you ever no- 
ticed how the air of a room is spoiled 
by the odor of night clothing and of bed coverings which 
have not been properly aired ? Some people roll up 
the nightdress and put it under the pillow. That night- 
dress will not smell sweet and clean at night. Clean 
clothing is absolutely necessary in order to keep well. 
We shall some day learn how to cleanse clothing prop- 
erly, by washing. Clothing worn next to the body 
should be changed once a week at least, and twice or 




should be 
night. 



aired 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 91 

three times if possible. When one works very hard and 
the body sends off more waste, clothing should be 
changed more often. 

The body which is to wear the clean clothing should 
be washed every day. It may not be possible to take 
a tub bath or a swim in the river or lake, but one can 
bathe all over with a bucket of water and a cloth and 
soap. It pays, for one feels so fresh ; and, then, the 
waste of the body is removed by the washing, and the 
pores of the skin are kept in good condition. When our 
skin is in good condition, we do not feel the cold as much 
as do those who do not bathe frequently. , 

Do you remember that we said our clothing must 
help to save some of the body heat ? That is how 
clothing protects. Why must some heat be saved ? 
We also learned that when our body works very hard 
much heat is created. Where does it go ? It is not all 
saved. Why ? Our clothing helps to prevent the heat 
of the body from escaping too rapidly. We should plan 
to wear light clothing in summer and heavier in winter, 
or to adapt our clothing to the weather. This is only 
good sense. In summer we have cool days, and in 
winter warm ones. People whose habits of living 
keep them indoors a great deal should be clothed 
lightly for a warm house and, when going out, should 
protect themselves with extra clothing. The boy 
or girl who walks to school rapidly does not re- 
quire as much clothing as one who rides. Can you 
tell why ? 



92 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Have you heard that several layers of thin clothing 
are warmer than one thick layer ? Frank Allen says 
he knows why. Yes, because of the layers of air 
between the thicknesses of clothing. Still air does 
not carry the heat away, so we feel warmer with several 
layers of still air. Clothing helps to keep the layers of 
air from conducting the heat away too rapidly. Porous 
clothing is always better because air can pass through 
and can be collected in the meshes. Loose wool 
material is warm because it holds the air between the 
spaces made by the woolly fibers. Some day we shall 
study the wool fiber as we have the cotton, and find out 
why it collects air and why woolen clothes shrink. 
Do you think you understand why clothes should be 
changed at night ? Can you tell your big brother at 
home why ? Mollie Stark and Jane Smith told about 
this part of the story when they went home from school. 
Mrs. Stark had invited some friends in for tea. All 
enjoyed hearing Mollie's story. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Why is it important to change one's clothing weekly ? 

2. What care should be taken of the clothing worn at night ? 
Why ? 

3. How do clothes help to keep us well ? Tell mother or father 
how. 

4. Look in your teacher's book on physiology. What does it 
say about body temperature ; about cleanliness of the skin ? 

5. Write the story of what you think Mollie and Jane told about 
this subject at Mrs. Stark's tea party. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 93 

Lesson 10 

laces and their use 

We must finish the sleeves of our nightdresses, and also the neck. 
Shall we use some lace ? Do you know that there are many kinds 
of lace ? How shall we sew it to the gown ? 

Do you know that there are many kinds of lace ? 

The day Marjorie Allen took the girls to visit her 
grandmother, they saw many things in the attic. 
Grandmother Allen also showed them some old lace 
and undergarments which were decorated with lovely 
embroidery. It was all done most evenly with lovely 
flowers and scalloped edges, and all in white cotton 
embroidery thread. There were some dainty old laces, 
too. The girls learned the names of some of them. 
The Sewing League sent for several samples of modern 
laces of the same names. There were cluny laces like 
these in the sample box. Cluny lace is often quite heavy 
and is used on heavy materials. The lighter cluny 
laces are more suitable for underwear. The cluny laces 
are hand or machine made. Which do you think are 
more expensive ? Have you ever seen any one make lace 
by hand ? It is sometimes done on a lace pillow with pins 
to outline the pattern. The little bobbins of thread are 
thrown around the pins. Can you get from the picture 
(Fig. 59) an idea of how it is done ? Torchon lace is also 
used, but is not quite so heavy as cluny. It is either 
hand or machine made. Both of these are linen laces, 
but sometimes are imitated in cotton. They are not so 



94 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 






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tion $.12 



Imitation Cluny edging. .15 



Real Cluny insertion . . .25 



Real Cluny edging 



German " Val " insertion .09 



German "Val" edging . .09 



French "Val" insertion .13 



French "Val" edging . .13 



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and 



retail prices of a few good laces for underwear. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 



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Cotton beading . . . $ .03 

Linen machine-made 
beading 04 

Linen beading 06 



Real torchon insertion . .24 



Real torchon edging . ; . .16 



Machine-made torchon 
insertion 07 

Machine-made torchon 
edge 10 



Irish crochet insertion . .85 



Irish crochet edging 



Fig. 58. 



9 6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



pretty when made of cotton. It is better taste to buy 
of good lace the amount one can afford than to buy a 
cheap imitation. If one can only pay for a cotton lace, 
then choose a cotton kind, such as the laces called 
Valenciennes. The girls sent for French Valenciennes 
and also for "German Vol" lace edging and insertion. 
What is the difference between an edging and an inser- 
tion ? The German Valenciennes laces are somewhat 

coarser. There are also 
some samples of Irish 
crochet lace. The real 
Irish handmade crochet 
is done with a crochet 
hook, by hand. The 
imitations are made by 
machinery. Marjorie's 
grandmother has some 
real Irish crochet and 
some real old Valen- 
ciennes lace. It is hand- 
made and must have cost a great deal of money. 
In grandmother's day machines had not been in- 
vented for making lace. Let us look at the samples 
which Miss James has. The pictures (Figs. 57 and 58) 
show some of those used by the Pleasant Valley girls. 
Which would you like on your gown ? The German 
Valenciennes wears well and is not expensive. The 
machine-made linen cluny or torchon lace is attractive, 
suitable, and it wears well. Why do you think a 




Fig. 59. — Lace being made by hand on 
pillows with tiny bobbins of thread. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 97 

fine French Valenciennes lace does not look well on thick 
muslin underwear ? 

Besides using lace, what are some other ways of 
finishing a garment ? We shall send for our laces and 
also learn another way to finish neck and sleeves, which 
will cost less. We can use bias bands of lawn to finish 
the rough edges. Cut them 2^ inches wide (see page 25), 
and they will be about one inch finished. The feather 
stitch added will make a pretty decoration. Scallop- 
ing is easy. The gowns might be finished with the 
hand scallop around neck and sleeves, if one has the 
time. 

We shall learn how to sew on the lace insertion or 
edging, The girls who use lace may decide to have only 
the edging. If insertion or beading is used, too, it is 
sewed on first. 

While we are waiting for the lace to come, we can 
prepare the edges of the neck and sleeves. If we use 
a French fell, the sewing will not show on the right side 
at all when the lace is entirely in place ; besides, only 
one sewing is necessary for the hem and lace. This 
is how it is done : 

1. Turn to the right side of the garment at both neck and sleeve 
edges, a hem of f inch. The first turning must, also, be § inch. 
Baste very carefully with small stitches. 

2. Turn these hems backward to wrong side and crease so that 
the edge of the turned hem is exactly at the finished edge of the 
garment. This is where the lace is to be sewed. We shall learn 
how to sew on the lace next lesson. 



98 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Bring to school all the samples of lace you can find at home. 
With your teacher's help compare and discuss their uses. Mount 
the best samples for an exhibit. 

2. Ask your family and friends to show you any old pieces of 
lace they may have. 

3. Consult the encyclopedia or other books, and see if you can 
learn more about how lace is made. There are several good books 
all about lace. 

Lesson ii 

trimming the nightdress 

A new way to sew on lace by hand, and an inexpensive way to 
trim the nightdress. 

Did you find it very difficult to turn the narrow hem 
around the neck of your nightdress ? Jane Smith 
almost cried ; but Miss James helped her a little. 
It is always more difficult to turn a hem on a curved 
edge than on a straight edge. If the turns have both 
been made the same width and if the basting stitches 
are small, there will be no difficulty. After the hems 
have been turned backwards and creased to the wrong 
side, we are ready to sew on the insertion. Hold the 
insertion straight with the right side to the right side 
of the gown, and. with the edge of the insertion to the 
edges of the creased hem. Now great care must be 
taken. The overhanding stitch is to be used. You 
learned this stitch on the bean bags (page 28). In 
taking the stitch be very careful to put the needle 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 99 

through the edge of the hem, the creased edge, and the 
lace. The sewing will not be neat unless all these edges 
are caught by this sewing. This is important. 

If one wishes, it is possible to use only the lace edging 
without the insertion. Sew it to the gown in the same 
way one would sew it to the insertion. Towards the 
worker hold the lace just a little full. Sometimes one 
can pull the thread at the edge of the lace and use it as 
a gathering thread ; but, as not much fullness is required, 
it is very satisfactory to hold the lace a little full with the 
thumb as one sews. Small overhanding stitches will hold 
the fullness as it is distributed evenly. The right side 
of the lace is placed towards the right side of the inser- 
tion so that the two edges of lace and insertion are over- 
handed together. Sometimes, if the neck of a gown 
is too big and one wishes to make it smaller, tucks can 
be put in groups at the center front or back, in number 
according to the amount to be taken up. In calculating 
for tucks, one must remember that the tuck takes up 
twice the amount of material as the width of tuck 
desired, and covers its own width in lying flat. If 
tucks are used to make the neck size smaller, it will be 
found more satisfactory to put a narrow facing around 
the neck before trimming. 

To seam the ends of lace, make a plain seam on the 
wrong side. Lay it flat, turn under the two edges 
together, and hem in a narrow hem. 

A pretty way to finish the edges of neck and sleeves 
is with bias bands. Cut strips as for the pot holder (see 



IOO 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



page 25). White, pink, or blue lawn may be used for 
contrast. Cut the bands 2^ inches wide. They will 
look one inch wide finished. Place on the right side, 
right of lawn to right of gown. Make \ inch seam and 
stitch. Turn to wrong side. Turn under \ inch and 
hem to wrong side. Another way to finish is to baste the 

band and decorate 
it with the feath- 
erstitch to hold 
the turning. This 
stitch is a pretty 
decoration (see 
page 120). It is 
placed on the right 
side and at the 
bottom of the 
band. It should 

Fig. 60. — Nightdress with sleeves set in, and U ~ made with 
sleeves and neck finished with bias bands. 

white cotton em- 
broidery thread ; #25 D.M.C. cotton is very good for 
such finishings. 

The neckband will need a tape or a ribbon to hold 
the fullness of the band close to the neck. The binding 
should be started and finished at the front, and the ends 
of binding should be turned in (Fig. 60). This will 
leave an opening where the ribbon can be run in. This 
is a satisfactory finish and is not expensive. The lawn 
is 12 or 15 cents a yard ; and \ yard will cut enough 
bands for several girls' gowns. The D.M.C. cotton 




MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 101 

will cost only two cents a skein. Send for these in 
time. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Can you suggest any other finish for the nightdress ? 

2. If you should wish to add 3 tucks each J inch wide at the 
bottom of your gown and with § inch space between them, how 
many extra inches in length would you have to add to your gown 
length ? The Pleasant Valley girls worked this out in their arith- 
metic class. 

Lesson 12 

choosing a pattern and material for a white petticoat 

Do you think you can send for the cotton material and for a 
pattern for a petticoat ? What kind of cloth will you use ? Per- 
haps you would prefer to make a slip instead of a skirt. 

Who can remember the names of the best cotton 
materials for underwear ? What shall we choose for 
our petticoats or slips ? Look at the pattern book and 
choose a simple petticoat. We shall learn to make one 
with a ruffle. It is very useful in summer to wear 
under thin dresses, although some girls may prefer to 
make a slip which combines petticoat and waist. 
What sizes shall we order ? How much cloth will be 
required ? We shall need three lengths of cloth for 
the skirt. Let us take our length measures for the 
skirt, allowing four inches extra for hem and finishing. 
Those who wish to make ruffles of the material will need 
one yard extra of same cloth or of lawn. Which will be 
less expensive, a ruffle of Hamburg embroidery edging 



102 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



or a ruffle of lawn decorated with a fancy stitch ? 

Which will take longer to prepare ? 

The girls of Pleasant Valley School decide on a 

pattern with five gores. What does that mean ? 

Would you prefer 
some other ? Why 
is the five-gored 
pattern a good one 
for the petticoat ? 

The girls choose 
cambric for their 
petticoats. Some 
decide to buy the 
lawn and to make 
the ruffle with a 
simple decoration. 
In calculating for 
the ruffle, allow i| 
times the width of 
the skirt. This is 
full enough. The 
depth of the ruffle 
is according to de- 
Fig. 61. — A simple petticoat. sire. It may be 

from 5 to 10 inches deep. Cut it across the warp. 

Can you tell why ? Others may decide to make a 

simple ruffle of the same material with a decorated hem ; 

a few may use the Hamburg ruffle. Which ruffle will 

you decide to use for your skirt or the bottom of your slip? 




MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 103 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

i. Calculate how much material you will need for your petticoat 
without the ruffle. 

2. Calculate the amount for the ruffle. 

3. How will the patterns help you to make these calculations ? 

Lesson 13 

learning to make the petticoat 

The girls of Pleasant Valley have had so much practice that the 
petticoat will not be a difficult task. Do you think you will find 
it easy too ? 

Mollie Stark is delighted to make the petticoat, for 
she needs one to wear under the new dotted Swiss dress 
that mother made for her birthday. She saw in the 
" Pleasant Valley News " that there will be an unusual 
sale of Hamburg edgings ; and she thinks she will go to 
town and see if it is something she can use. Miss 
James told the girls that Hamburg edging which is full 
of holes and in which the pattern is poor and poorly 
embroidered, is not worth buying. The edge is usually 
very weak and pulls out after one or two, washings. 
The Hamburg edging called " blind embroidery " has 
no holes and is likely to be firmer. 

Let us study briefly how the petticoats are to be 
made : 

1. Cutout. Follow pattern, placing economically. Allow extra 
for hem, if necessary, and one inch for receiving tuck under which 
the ruffle will be placed. Fold pieces left over ; they will be needed. 



io 4 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

2. Pin and baste gores. Be careful to match notches — front, 
then side gore at each side, then back gore at each side of side gore, 
five in all. Pin from top down. Baste from bottom up with bias 
edge towards worker. Holding thus prevents stretching. 

3. Make French seams by machine. 

4. Make hem on bottom. Baste a two or three inch hem as 
planned. Stitch. Sometimes dust ruffles of the same cloth or of 
lawn are placed on the bottom of the skirt instead of a hem. They 
are made about 3 or 4 inches wide and cut across warp of cloth. The 
skirt is then cut 3 or 4 inches shorter, and the ruffle makes the length 
by being added at bottom under a tuck f inch wide. This ruffle 
has J inch hem on the bottom edge and is sewed to skirt with a seam 
on the right side. The tuck is made directly above it and is stitched 
flat to cover the raw edges. A hem at the bottom is enough, and 
is suitable for young girls, when a ruffle is to be added above for 
decoration and fullness. 

5. Prepare tuck on skirt for ruffle. Measure from bottom of 
skirt depth of ruffle. At that point make a tuck | inch deep. 
Baste and stitch. This must be same distance from the bottom 
of skirt all the way around, and on the right side of skirt. It is 
not always necessary to use a tuck. A bias band can be used 
instead or a beading to cover the raw edges of the ruffle. 

6. Prepare ruffle. This may be of lawn with edge hemmed and 
decorated with featherstitch, or it may be of Hamburg edging or 
of same material with scalloped edge (see page 142). A ruffle of the 
same material with a simple \ inch hem may also be used. The 
width of ruffle is half as full again as the width of skirt. The 
depth can be 5-10 inches as desired. Divide ruffle in quarters, 
and gather. 

7. To join ruffle to skirt. Divide skirt in quarters. Pin quar- 
tered ruffle in place. Draw up gathering threads to fit skirt. 
Wind thread around pins to hold. Baste. If a receiving tuck has 
been made, turn it down over the raw edge of ruffle and baste and 
stitch on very edge of tuck. If a tuck has not been made, baste 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 105 

over the raw edges of ruffle a band of finishing braid or beading or a 
bias strip of the same cloth as the skirt, f inch wide ; stitch on both 
edges. 

8. To make placket. Use straight strip 2 inches wide. Start at 
waist line, right of strip to right of skirt. Sew all around placket 
opening. Stitch. Turn to wrong side. Hem down by hand. 
Lap at bottom of opening so it lies flat. Backstitch across the 
bottom with a slanting line of stitches. This makes a flat back 
with no fullness and is called a bound placket. 

9. To finish top of skirt. Cut bias strip of cloth about one inch 
wide ; sew to right side. Turn over to wrong side even with top ; 
turn so as to be \ inch wide finished ; stitch on edge, flat. Lap 
skirt in back with three buttonholes, one at waist and two below 
in placket lap. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Calculate how much ruffling of Hamburg edging will be 
needed for a skirt z\ yards around. 

2. Get samples of embroidery and pin to the Bulletin Board, 
where all the girls may see them. 

3. Practice making a receiving tuck. 

4. See if you can plan a section of a dust ruffle for a petticoat. 
Make the skirt part of brown paper with tissue for the ruffle. 

Lesson 14 

how to make a corset cover 

The new problem of corset cover is not difficult, if one has learned 
all the preceding lessons. Let us study how to trim this garment or 
the waist of a slip. 

Some of the girls of Pleasant Valley will make com- 
binations of corset cover and skirt, and others the corset 
cover (Fig. 62). They decide to use nainsook and to 



io6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



trim them with German valenciennes lace. About i^ 
yards of cloth are necessary. They have sent for a 
simple pattern and will make them partly by hand. 

Miss James gave 
them the following 
directions : 

1. To cut. Place 
pattern economically. 
Pin and cut. 

2. Baste. Pin and 
baste under-arm seams 
and shoulders. 
Sew French seams by 
machine. 

3. Make front laps. 
On left side make hem 
f inch wide turned to 
wrong side. On right 
front make hem 
turned to right side | 
inch wide. Stitch this 
I inch from each edge 
to form front lap. It 
could be run by hand 

if all handmade or featherstitched with tiny stitches. This lap 
is for the buttonholes, which are made vertically, three or four 
in the lap. If it is desired to conceal the buttons, make an extra 
strip for buttonholes and stitch under the right front lap with 
the stitching of hem. 

4. Finish bottom. Even the bottom, and make as a finish a 
narrow hem \ inch wide. 

5. Gather at waist line. In center fronts and in middle of center 




Fig. 62. — A simple corset cover. 



MAKING SIMPLE GARMENTS 107 

back, gather at the waist line to fit figure. Baste on inside of 
waist over these adjusted gathers a straight band J inch wide, with 
edges turned. Baste and stitch this top and bottom to hold 
gathers. Waist line can, also, be finished, if desired, on right side 
with beading or with a band. 

6. To finish top of cover and sleeves. Make the same finish as 
for kimono night dress. This is neat and attractive. The top of 
the corset cover can be gathered to fit the figure, or tiny hand or 
machine tucks of f inch in width may be run about three inches 
deep each side of the front laps, five or six tiny ones being made on 
each side, according to the amount of fullness to be taken in. The 
top can be finished with a Hamburg beading for ribbon, sewed on 
with a French seam ; and then lace may be overhanded on the edge 
of it. The finish of the sleeves should correspond to the neck finish. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

Calculate how much beading and lace or lace alone will be 
necessary to trim a corset cover. Draw sketch of how it is to be 
decorated. 

REVIEW PROBLEMS 

I. Practice sewing on the machine at home. Learn to turn 
good square corners and to stitch straight. 

II. Plan to make a slip or some extra garment at home, using the 
principles and knowledge gained at school, in sewing seams, trim- 
ming and making. 

III. In what ways are you planning to protect your body at 
night ? How do you ventilate your room ? How air your clothes ? 




CHAPTER III 



LEARNING TO MAKE SOME ATTRACTIVE GIFTS FOR 
CHRISTMAS OR FOR A BIRTHDAY PRESENT 

Perhaps you would like to surprise mother or father 
at Christmas time or to make a birthday gift for grand- 
mother or auntie. All the Pleasant Valley School girls 
have made plans for Christmas. Making gifts is not 
difficult, if one gives thought and time, and need not 
be a great expense, if one is careful to use scraps of 
cloth. Look in the attic or in the piece bag to see if 
there are any scraps of silk. If you are making a gift 
for mother, I am sure grandmother will help you to 
find something. Giving is much fun when one can 
make the gift a surprise. Grandmother Allen and 
Grandmother Stark are helping the Pleasant Valley 
girls with their surprises. It is not the cost of a gift 
which counts, but the loving thought which one puts 
into it. A surprise birthday pudding or cake, a sur- 
prise apron or work bag, are all things into which we 
can put loving thought. Who said the " gift without 
the giver is bare " ? What does that mean ? Have 

1 08 



MAKING GIFTS 109 

you ever given a gift or received one into which no 
loving thought had been put ? See how much happier 
you will feel when you give thought, too. 

The girls of the Pleasant Valley Sewing League 
think they will make something for their fair. Miss 
James has a box full of samples of silk from a whole- 
sale house, which were given to her. She says the 
girls may have them. Some of the pieces are very 
large and can be used for many things. Next lesson 
you might do as they did, and all bring any pieces 
you may have and see what can be made from them. 

Lesson i 

the story of how silk is produced 

Do you know that a tiny little worm gives us our silk dresses, 
hair ribbons, neckties, gloves, stockings, and many other useful 
things ? Do you know how the worm makes the silk ? It is a 
very wonderful story. Let us study about silk to-day. 

In the picture (Fig. 63) you will see one of the silk- 
worms full-grown. The mother and father were beauti- 
ful moths. The mother moth lays the little eggs 
on the leaves of the mulberry tree because they are 
good food for her baby worms. The sunshine and 
warmth hatch the little eggs. The eggs are like pin- 
heads, and are smaller than tiny grains of chopped 
corn which you feed your chickens. Your mother 
hen sets on the eggs until the warmth makes the chicks 
grow, but the sunshine starts the tiny moth eggs. 



no CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Soon a little baby worm comes out and is as small as 
a tiny thread. It grows and grows and eats and eats, 
until it is about three inches long and nearly as thick 
around as one of your fingers, as the picture shows 




Courtesy of Corticelli Silk Co. Copyright, 1895, Nonotuck Silk Co. 
Fig. 63. — Corticelli silkworm, eating. 

(Fig. 63). It takes about a month for the worm to 
grow so large. It must be tended very carefully 
and given the right food, or it will die. The food must 
be chopped fine. It is like preparing milk for baby ; 
is it not ? They must, also, be kept very clean in 
order to grow. Cleanliness always helps animals, 
as well as people, to grow. 

Have you heard that there are some countries where 
the silkworm grows better than in others ? Can you 
name the countries producing the most silk ? You 
have learned that in your geography. Yes, Japan 
and China and Italy. Yes, and France and Asia 



MAKING GIFTS 



in 



Minor, too. Do you think the United States pro- 
duces very much silk ? Why not ? In the countries 
named, labor is not so expensive. Silkworms require 
much care and labor. 

Silk is the most beautiful and the strongest of the 
common fibers. It also costs the most. The silk 
fiber produced by these 
tiny worms is often four 
thousand feet in length. 
Let us learn how the tiny 
worm does such a won- 
derful thing. He must 
work as hard as the busy 
bee. 

After the worm is full- 
grown he begins his busy 
work. This is like boys 
and girls ; they, too, begin 
to work when they are 
grown. If well fed and 
clean, the worm will work 
well. This is apt to be 
true of girls and boys, too. The worm begins by making 
a house for himself called a cocoon (Fig. 64). Have you 
ever seen the cocoons of any moth ? If you will look, 
you will find them on the trees. Miss James has some 
cocoons of the lovely green Luna moth. She put 
the green worm in the box, and it has spun a cocoon. 
We do not find the mulberry worm growing wild in 



f% 




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Courtesy of United States Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 64. — The houses or cocoons built by 
the worms in the branches. 



ii2 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

the United States. In some countries it grows wild, 
just as our Luna moth. 

When the worm is ready to spin, she throws out two 
tiny little threads one from each side of her head. 
This is a secretion and is a kind of jellylike fluid. As 
the air touches it, it hardens. She works her head 
back and forth, and the tiny filaments, or threads, 
as they are called, are joined together into one. She 
works and works until she has built a house of silk 
threads all glued together so that it seems like a mass 
of parchment paper. These houses are about i^ 
inches in length, and are white or yellow in color. In 
China and Japan these cocoons are grown and tended 
very carefully. The outside of the cocoon is cov- 
ered with the loose fluffy silk which the worm uses 
to attach his home to a leaf or twig. It takes the 
worm three weeks to make this long, continuous thread 
called a cocoon. During that time a wonderful thing 
happens. The worm inside the cocoon is changed to 
a moth like her mother and father and is ready to 
leave her home by eating her way out. What would 
happen to the long silk thread if she did that ? Yes, 
it would be broken into small pieces and not be one 
continuous piece. Some moths are permitted to come 
out (see Fig. 65). They then find a mate and soon 
more tiny eggs are laid by the mother moth ; and all 
the story begins again. 

A sad thing happens when cocoons are grown for 
the silk. The moths are not allowed to come out 



MAKING GIFTS 113 

and break the thread ; but are put in a very hot 
place so they die inside. The cocoons are then 
ready to be reeled or wound off. They are placed 
in basins of hot water because the gummy secretion 
of the worm must be softened. The ends from 
four or five cocoons are caught together and reeled, 
or wound, off together. This makes a strand of raw 
silk. 

John Alden told the following story. He said his 




Courtesy of Corticelli Silk Co. Copyright, 1895, by Nonotuck Silk Co. 
Fig. 65. — Corticelli cocoons from which the moths have emerged. 

father read it aloud the night before when the family 
gathered about the big open fire. Once upon a time, 
long ago, people did not know how to use the beautiful 
fibers of the silkworm. We are told that a Chinese 
empress discovered how to use it as long ago as 2700 
years before the birth of Christ. Every year, in April, 
the Chinese people have a celebration in her honor, 
because of her valuable discovery. Think of all the 
riches she added to her country because of this secret. 



ii4 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



It is said that for many years this secret was kept ; 
but later some monks traveling east to India and 
Constantinople told others how to reel the silk fiber. 
Then the use of silk fiber spread to Greece and Italy 
and Spain, and by the fourteenth century was common 




Courtesy of United States Department of Agriculture. 
Fig. 66. — Silk reeling. The cocoons are in the basins before the women. 



in France. Since then, silk manufacture has grown 
rapidly in importance. John traced the journey on the 
map. Will you see if you can trace this journey of silk 
manufacture. Where do you think the secret was 
carried from France ? 

Can you send for some cocoons and raw silk ? 
Your teacher will tell you where to write. Raw silk, 



MAKING GIFTS 115 

as it is wound from cocoons, is made up into hanks 
like the worsted which you buy at the store. It is 
sold in hanks by the pound and costs from $7.00 to 
$10.00 a pound. It takes three thousand silkworms 
to spin a pound of raw silk. Do you know that for 
grandmother's dress about two pounds of raw silk 
were necessary ? Can you tell how many worms were 
kept busy ? 

In another lesson we shall learn how the manufacturer 
of silk ribbons or silk material takes the raw silk and 
makes it into beautiful fabrics. Now we know about 
a useful little animal as well as about a plant which 
gives us clothing. Silk, however, is more expensive 
than cotton. Cotton is sometimes made to look like 
silk. The cotton fiber is mercerized, which means 
soaked in certain chemicals and stretched to make it 
look silky. Lisle thread looks somewhat like silk. 
It is cotton twisted hard to give it a luster. Another 
day we shall learn more about these. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Do you know where silk is grown ? Write a story of 100 
words telling about it. 

2. Why is not more silk grown in the United States ? 

3. Find on your map of the world the principal countries where 
silk is grown. 

4. Name some articles made of silk which you use every day; 
which you see used. 

5. What are some of the other uses which we have for 
silk ? 



n6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Lesson 2 



SIMPLE ARTICLES EASILY MADE FROM SILK SCRAPS 

There are so many things which can be made from silks. Sup- 
pose you start with something easy. Miss James had some good 
suggestions. The little pin-case or the sewing-case are both useful 
(Figs. 68 and 69). You know the overhanding stitch; so you can 
make them quickly. Several of the Pleasant Valley girls will 
make them for Christmas gifts as well as for the fair. Which 
will you make ? 

Here are the directions for making both the pin-case 
and the sewing-case. They are not difficult if the 
directions are followed carefully. 

For the Pin-case. Cut two circles of stiff cardboard from 2 to 3 
inches in diameter, if your silk pieces will permit. The circles 
must be exact. Cut two pieces of silk 3 or 
4 inches in diameter, so the silk pieces will 
be I inch larger all around than the card- 
board. J inch from the edge, with double 
thread, make a row of gathering stitches ; 
slip cardboard within and draw up the silk 
around the card. Now crisscross with your 
thread through the edges of material until 
all is held firmly (Fig. 67). Cover both 
cards. Then hold the two together, and 
very neatly overhand with silk thread of a 
color to match. Tiny stitches should be 




Fig. 67. — This shows how 
to cover the circle, and 
draw the silk neatly at taken. Put in a row of pins around the 



the edges. 



edges close together. A pretty decoration 



can be made by working a design or an initial on the silk if it is 
a plain color. This can be done with chain stitch or featherstitch, 
before the cover is put over the cardboard. 



MAKING GIFTS 



117 



In the picture (Fig. 68) notice the other cases. They are made 
exactly like the pin-case but of circles or of pieces of different shape. 








Fig. 68. — Several useful cases: A, pin-case; B, oval pin-case; C, spool-case; 
D, darning-case; E, needle-book. 

Cases for doilies can be made of two large circles of 12 in. in 
diameter. The circles can be tied together with ribbon and the 



n8 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



doilies lie flat between. The case for darning thread is also very 

useful. 

For the sewing case. This is more difficult. It is three-sided 

and is made of three elliptical disks covered as we did the 

round ones for the pincase. How many 
cardboards will you need ? Thin card- 
board is necessary. What does ellip- 
tical mean ? A good size is 4 inches 
the long way and z\ inches across. 
All the girls know how to draw an 
ellipse. Cut the six pieces of silk 
\ inch larger all around than the 
ellipses, and cover in same way as 
you did the round disks. If there 
are not enough scraps of one color, 
use a contrasting color for the lining. 
After the six pieces have been covered 
and joined together to make three 
ellipses, then the three are to be over- 

Fig. 69. — The sewing case handed together very neatly, leaving 

made of three elliptical disks p en the third edge, which is the open- 

toget er. -^ q £ t ^ e case w here the spools, etc. 

are put inside. The case naturally closes itself; but, when pressed 

at the ends, it opens easily. 




What are some pretty stitches that may be used for 
decorating ? If one wishes, the sewing case can also be 
decorated with a good design like the one in the picture 
(Fig. 69). Would you like to make the chain stitch and 
the featherstitch ? They are both useful for decoration 
on bags, aprons, dresses for baby, underwear, and many 
things. Mollie Stark learned this stitch and used it on 
a dress for her baby brother. Mrs. Stark is very 



MAKING GIFTS 



119 



happy to think Mollie is learning how to sew. These 
are the directions for making several pretty stitches : 

The chain stitch is easy to learn. Begin with a knot. Pass the 
thread from the under side up. Throw the thread so as to make 
an (see Fig. 70). Put the needle 
into the hole where thread came 
through, and make a stitch about 
\ inch long. Hold the cloth over 
the fingers with the thumb on top. 
The needle should be pointed towards 
the worker, and the point of the 
needle should be brought up through 
the little round O. Care must be 
taken in pulling the thread through 
to have the loop of thread lying flat 
on the cloth. The length of stitch 
should be uniform. What does uni- 
form mean ? The outline of an ini- 
tial or any drawn design can be 
followed with this stitch. 

The featherstitch is very beautiful 
when made small and even (Fig. 
71). It can be varied by making 
one or two stitches on each side of 
a center line. The length of the 
stitches and the slant always affect 
the appearance. In practicing the 
featherstitch draw a pencil line on 
your cloth as a guide. The stitches 
are slanting and are taken towards 
this line. This stitch is used for 
decoration in the same way as the chain stitch. 

The single featherstitch. Hold the work over the finger with 




Fig. 70. — The chain stitch. 



120 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



thumb on top of cloth. Work towards you. Start with knot on 
under side of pencil line. Draw thread through to right side. 
Lay thread on the pencil line and hold with thumb. To right of 




^ 






Fig. 71. — A, the single featherstitch; B, the double featherstitch. 



thread near beginning, take a small § inch slanting stitch towards 
the line of thread. Draw needle through over the loop of thread. 
Have it loose and lying flat. For the second stitch, hold thread 
again on the pencil mark. Throw thread for next stitch on the 



MAKING GIFTS 



121 



f 



left of the line. Take slanting stitch towards center line. Draw 
needle up through the loop, which should lie flat. The next stitch 
is taken to the right of the center line directly under the stitch 
above it, and should be the same 
length and slant. The beauty of 
this stitch depends on its evenness. A 
striped material makes a good prac- 
tice piece. After the stitch is learned, 
it is easy to make it on plain cloth ; 
but one must then keep constantly 
in mind an imaginary center line. 
This is a very useful stitch for finish- 
ing hems instead of using the hem- 
ming stitch. The lawn ruffles on 
our petticoats were finished with 
this stitch. The featherstitch is 
sometimes a straight stitch instead 
of slanting. It is taken each side 
of the imaginary center line as the 
slanting one, but the needle is held 
straight. 

The outline stitch. This is another 
easy stitch (Fig. 72) which every girl 
should learn. It can be used instead 
of the chain or featherstitch, as deco- 
ration. It outlines, or follows, the 
design, and so gets its name. The 
stitch is taken on the line and is 
worked from left to right. Care 
must be taken to have the stitches 
all the same length and to throw the thread in one direction either 
away from or towards the worker. The pretty effect will be spoiled 
if there is a variation. Away from the worker makes a neat effect. 
Begin with knot. Draw needle to right side on the line. Throw 





J 



Fig. 72. — The outline stitch. 



122 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

thread away from worker; take a small back stitch on the line, 
needle pointing towards the worker. This will make a long thread 
on the surface and the short stitch beneath. The efFect is much 
prettier when the stitches are taken close together. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Name some other articles on which the featherstitch or 
chain stitch can be used ; some on which the outline stitch may 
be used. 

2. Draw a picture on the blackboard of the featherstitch, chain 
stitch, and outline stitch. Can you show how the needle looks in 
position, without looking at your textbook ? 



Lesson 3 

the names and uses of several silks are discussed 

To-day we shall study again about silks. Let us look at those 
in Miss James' piece bag; and, also, see how many different kinds 
we have for our gifts. Perhaps your teacher has some too. 

Such a variety of kinds and colors ! Some are soft 
and light, and others are heavy and stiff. Do they 
have names just as the cotton materials ? 

Can any one tell the names of any of these silks ? 
Yes, the plain one is a taffeta. It is plain in color ; and 
the weave is plain, the same on both sides. Some- 
times it comes with printed and woven figures. What 
is the difference between a woven and a printed design ? 
Here is a piece with a printed design. It is a foulard 
silk. How does this design differ from the taffeta 
with the design ? Foulard silk is used for dresses. 



MAKING GIFTS 123 

Taffeta is also ; as well as for linings and for petti- 
coats. A cheap quality of taffeta does not wear well. 
It costs from 75 cents to $2.00 a yard, and is woven 
21 inches and wider. Foulards are about 24 inches 
wide and can be bought for the same price as the 
taffetas. Mollie's mother had a foulard silk dress 
last summer ; so did Grandmother Allen. 

Here is a soft crinkling white piece and a dark blue 
just like it ; and also a black piece. These are called 
crepe de chine and are used for dresses, also ; and some- 
times for underwear. It is soft and lustrous, and 
comes in plain colors and sometimes printed. It 
costs from 75 cents up and is woven 22 inches and 
sometimes wider. 

Shall we start another book of materials, and see 
how many silks we can learn about ? 

The piece Barbara Oakes brought is smooth and 
shiny on the right side. Does anyone know the name ? 
It is woven in such a way that the filling thread goes 
over several threads and under one. Try it on your 
school loom. This weave brings most of the filling 
thread on the surface of the cloth. The material is 
called satin, and the weave is the satin weave. Some 
cottons are woven with the satin weave, and often in 
table linen or damask we see the smooth satin weave. 
Here is a bit of damask table linen. Let us compare 
this smooth part with the satin. 

Satins are used for dresses, linings, trimmings, boxes, 
and for many other purposes. They cost $1 to $20 



124 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



per yard, if very beautiful, and are woven from 21 
to 54 inches wide. Satin is sometimes made of a 

combination of 
linen or cotton, 
with the silk. It 
is then less ex- 
pensive. The 
woof, or filling 
thread, which 
gives the smooth 
finish is silk; and 
it is that which 
shows in the fin- 
ished cloth. 
This piece of 
silk, which looks 
figured like table 
linen, only it is 
made of silk, is 
called a brocaded 
satin. This 
satin is used for 
dresses and 
trimmings, and 
often for furniture covering and for hangings in beauti- 
ful rooms. It is made on a loom called a Jacquard. 
Table damask is made on the same kind of loom. This 
wonderful loom (Fig. 73) is able to produce very beau- 
tiful patterns, because of the management of the 




Courtesy of Crompton and Knowles. 

Fig. 73. — The Jacquard loom. Notice the cards with 
punched holes above it. They affect the pattern. 
Can you find the cloth which is being woven ? 



MAKING GIFTS 125 

perforated cards above the loom which affect the 
pattern. 

The soft white piece is china silk. Little Alice Allen 
had a dress made of it last summer. It is a plain weave, 
and many of such silks are still woven by hand in China. 
It is very durable and is used for dresses, waists, and 
underwear. It costs $1 for a fairly good quality, 
and is woven 24 inches wide 

This piece of silk, also, originated in China. It is called 
pongee. Mary Jones had a coat of this last year. It is 
ecru in color and is soft. The real Chinese pongee is 
hand-woven and is made from the silk of wild silk- 
worms. It is woven 27 inches wide and costs #1 
per yard up. This piece was $1.50 per yard. 

This is a queer-looking piece. It is marked in a 
watery pattern. The silk has been pressed between hot 
rollers which are stamped with a pattern to give that 
effect. It is called moire silk, and is used for trimmings 
and dresses. It is quite expensive. A good piece will 
cost at least $2 per yard and is 22 inches in width. 

We shall learn about two more of the most common 
silk materials. One is thick, and the other is thin. The 
thin piece is called chiffon. Who has ever seen it used ? 
Yes, for veils. It is used for dresses, too, and for hats 
and trimmings. Isn't it light and thin and gauzy ? It 
is made in plain colors generally ; sometimes figured. 
It is 46 inches wide and costs from $.75 to $2 per yard. 

Yes, every one knows this one ! It is called velvet. 
This piece is all silk, and was a part of Marjorie's 



126 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

great-grandmother's dress. Some velvets are made of 
linen and silk, or of cotton and silk. All silk velvet is 
very expensive. It often costs #10 a yard and more. 
Some silk velvet can be bought for $4 or $5 a yard. 
It is woven from 18 to 42 inches wide. Isn't it thick ? 
Do you notice the tiny ends standing up ? It is woven 
just like some carpet, and the thickness is called the 
pile. In weaving, little loops of the filling thread are 
made, and after weaving, these are cut to form the pile. 
Such weaving looks very difficult. The warp is some- 
times linen or cotton. This other thick piece with a 
pile is called plush. It has a longer pile than velvet. 
There are also cotton plushes. Did your mother 
ever have a winter coat of plush ? Mrs. Alden had one 
which lasted for years. 

Let us mount our silk samples. Another day we 
shall study how they are woven from the raw silk. 
Isn't it interesting to feel acquainted with this new 
family of materials ? Notice before next lesson how 
many things you see which are made of silk. Have 
you any in your schoolroom ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Bring to school all the samples of different kinds of silks 
which you can collect. Can you tell their names ? 

2. Name an expensive silk suitable for a dress, and give its 
approximate cost. Name an inexpensive silk suitable for a sum- 
mer dress ; give its approximate cost. 

3. What is plush used for ? What is chiffon made of? 

4. Start a book of silk samples. 



MAKING GIFTS 



127 



Lesson 4 

more useful gifts and how to make them 

Two more useful gifts : a workbag of silk, and a sewing apron. 
Which will you chose to make ? 

The workbag. Barbara Oakes has a very com- 
plete little workbag (Fig. 74) which grandmother made 
for her last Christmas. The girls 
think they would like to copy it. 





Fig. 74. — A, a very useful bag. B, the sewing apron. 

It is made of a piece of yellow flowered ribbon which 
was 8 inches wide ; \ a yard is enough. If you have 
scraps of silk, use a strip 8 inches wide X 14 inches 
long. With the other 4 inches, if ribbon is used, the cir- 
cular disks for the bottom are to be covered. To make : 

1. Cut two circles of cardboard 3 inches in diameter. Cut 
the silk for covering four inches in diameter. Cover in the same 
way as you covered the pin disk. This is the bottom of the bag. 

2. Seam the two ends of the 14 inch strip together with two 
runs and backstitch (see page 35). Open seams flat. Turn 
along one long edge, \ inch if selvedge of ribbon ; if silk, make two 
turns : first \ inch, second \ inch. Baste and hold with feather- 
stitch (see page 120), or cross-stitch (see page 145) At seam of bag 



128 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

open seam carefully J inch on the right side for casing hole for 
ribbon. At the opposite side, work a small buttonhole (see page 
43) § inch in length. This will be the top of the bag; and the 
two ribbons are to be run through the casing so it will draw up. 

3. At the other edge of the long strip, fold to the wrong side: 
first 2 inches of the strip, and then the 2 inches folded over it- 
self. Baste carefully. This fold is to form pockets on the inside 
of the bag. Every two inches along length of strip, mark with a 
pin ; and on the right side of bag, featherstitch or cross-stitch in 
rows two inches deep, to form pockets on the inside of the strip. 

4. Gather the edge of the strip to be sewed to the covered disks. 
Divide gathers in half. Pin to disk. Overhand to disk with close 
stitches on the inside of bag. 

This workbag makes a very useful gift. It can be 
filled with a pair of small scissors, emery, needles, and 
spools of silk placed in the pockets. The ribbon for draw- 
ing top is in two pieces, \ yard in each. Start one piece 
from one side and run around casing until it comes 
out at the same place it started. Tie in bow. Start 
other ribbon at opposite side, and run it all around 
casing, until it returns to the same side it started 
from. Tie in bow. 

The sewing apron. — Another useful gift is a small 
sewing apron (Fig. 74). It can be made of silk or of 
dimity at 12J cents a yard, and need not then cost 
more than 15 cents. Dimity is one yard wide; and 
I of a yard is enough. To make : 

1. From one selvedge cut a strip 2 J inches wide, lengthwise of 
the piece. This is for the band and is cut off before the apron is 
made. Remove other selvedge. 



MAKING GIFTS 



129 



2. Turn f inch hem to right side of apron at the lengthwise 
edges of cloth ; baste carefully. 

3. At one cross wise end turn, hem ij inches«wide to right side. 
Baste and hem with featherstitching on the reverse or wrong side. 




m 


RuFFUE 


\ /Pocket 


> 




z 


v 


s.* E r~ 




Gore \ Front 




\ GrORE 



Fig. 75. — Four useful aprons. 

4. Turn up at bottom 8 inches to form pocket, so featherstitch- 
ing will be on the upper or right side. Baste and overhand edges 
the depth of pocket. 

5. Featherstitch side hems, catching the pocket to hold securely. 

6. Divide large pocket in three by making two rows of feather- 
stitching like picture. 

K 



130 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



7. Put on band. Divide gathered top of apron. Divide band. 
Allow band to extend each side of gathers. A space of 12 inches 
in center of band is enough to contain the gathers. Put on as you 
put on the band of petticoat, but overhand edges of the band 
extending beyond gathers. 

8. A buttonhole and button can be used to finish, or ribbon may 
be sewed to ends of band. This makes a very useful gift. 




Fig. 76. — Two cases on which the featherstitch can be used. A, needle 
case and bag. B, linen traveling case for overshoes. 



Look at the sketches (Fig. 75) of other aprons : 
A is made from a square of figured lawn ; \ yard 
is enough. It is shaped at one corner for a bib. A 
hem is turned at the edge and featherstitched. A few 
small tucks make it fit the waist, and ribbon trims it. 



MAKING GIFTS 131 

B is made from f of a yard of lawn, as shown in the 
diagram. Place pattern economically. 

C is made of a width of lawn or silk with a hem at 
the bottom and casing at the top. 

D is made of glass toweling trimmed with finishing 
braid and featherstitching. 

Figure 76 shows some useful cases with decorations 
of featherstitch. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Plan a gift and surprise mother at her birthday anniversary. 
Your teacher will help you. 

2. See if you can plan an original gift. Draw a sketch of it. 

3. Bring all the suggestions for gifts you can find in clippings 
from old magazines. 

Lesson 5 

cousin ann tells how silk is made into cloth 

Last summer Marjorie Allen's Cousin Ann visited her. She lives 
at Paterson, New Jersey, where there are many silk mills. She 
told the girls of the Sewing League about the way silk is made into 
cloth. Shall we too learn how ? 

Where is silk manufactured ? We know that very 
little silk is grown in the United States ; but we also 
know that our country leads in the manufacture of 
silks and uses more raw silk than any other country 
in the world. France is next and produces very beauti- 
ful materials. Most of our silk factories are in the 
East : in New Jersey, Connecticut, New York, and 
Pennsylvania. People have tried to raise silkworms 



132 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



here. In 1624 some Frenchmen living in Virginia 
tried, but were not very successful. Such experiments 
have usually failed because it costs so much for labor. 
In 1747 the governor of Connecticut wore a coat and 
stockings made of silk produced on his place. We use 
about 85 per cent of the silk manufactured here. What 
per cent is, then, exported ? In 1876, at the great 

Centennial Exhibition in 
Philadelphia, Marjorie's 
grandmother saw wonder- 
ful exhibits of silk woven 
in many colors, and even 
beautiful woven pictures 
of silk. Has any one ever 
seen a woven picture of 
silk ? Have you ever seen 
one tiny fiber of silk as 
it looks under the micro- 
scope ? What do you 
notice ? 

This is what Marjorie's cousin from Paterson told 
the girls. They went to one room at the mill where 
there were great bales of silk, weighing about 100 or 
150 pounds, but not quite so heavy or large as a bale 
of cotton. When opened there were many hanks in 
each bale ; tied up, five or ten in a bundle. These 
hanks were taken first to a man called a throwster. 
Silk throwing means soaking the skeins to remove more 
of the gum, and winding the silk from the skein to a 




Fig. yy. — Silk fibers magnified. 



MAKING GIFTS 



133 



spool. This is done by soaking in warm water, drying, 
and then placing the silk on swifts, or reels. Have you 
ever seen a reel for winding ? (See Fig. 78.) It 
holds the skein of silk. The ends are taken, and the 
machine unwinds from the skein and winds the silk on 
spools. In one skein there are from 75,000 to 200,000 
yards of silk. The spools are then placed in a machine 
which cleans and twists two of these spool threads to- 
gether to form one, and 
then winds it off on new 
spools. This twisted silk 
is called "organzine." 
Isn't that a queer name ? 
It means the thread used 
in a loom for the warp or 
strong threads. Why are 
twisted threads stronger ? 
Try, and see if they are. 

Silk is a most perfect 
fiber ; and does not have 
to be prepared as much as cotton or wool. Sometimes 
it is twisted a very little for the warp. The filling 
thread has a queer name, too. It is called the " tram," 
and need not be of so good a quality of silk as the strong 
warp, nor so tightly twisted. Cotton spinning is dif- 
ferent from silk throwing ; but both mean getting the 
fibers ready for weaving. 

There are many beautiful colored silks. Silk is 
usually dyed (Fig. 79) in the yarn in hanks. The poor 




Courtesy of Cheney Bros. 

Fig. 78. — Silk winding. 



134 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



qualities, however, are dyed after the silk is woven into 
the piece. Silk is dyed by dipping the skeins or yards 
of silk in great vats of dye. For dyeing, the coal-tar 
products (aniline dyes) are used. Did you know that 
coal could produce such beautiful colors ? That is 




Fig. 79. — Silk dyeing. 



Courtesy of C fie my Bros. 



a long story of the many wonderful things which can be 
made from tar. Do you know that 25 per cent of the 
weight of the raw silk is made up of the gummy sub- 
stance ? The dyer boils out some of the gum ; and, if he 
wishes to produce cheap silks and make much money, 



MAKING GIFTS 



135 



he makes up for the weight of gum boiled out, by- 
using tin. The silk is dipped in bichloride of tin or 
other substances ; and it takes up, or absorbs, until 
sometimes it weighs twice or even four times as much 
as the boiled-off silks. This tin is bought for silk. 
Women who do not know think they are buying 
heavy silk and are getting a good quality because it is 
so heavy. This solution of tin rots the silk, and, when 
the silk comes in contact 
with light and air, it 
crumbles away. Perhaps 
you have at home a sam- 
ple of silk which has done 
this. Marjorie's Cousin 
Ann saw some petticoats 
of silk which went to 
pieces just hanging in a 
closet. Sometimes that 
happens when store keep- 
ers keep the petticoats for 
some time. One can see the holes by holding the silk 
up to the light. In order to know what one is buying 
one must study about materials and about how they 
are made. 

Have you ever seen a picture of silk being dyed in 
the skein ? Marjorie's cousin says it is done by ma- 
chinery. See how many skeins are on the big wheel, 
or drum as it is called. As it turns, the skeins are 
dipped in the vat of dye. 




Fig. 80. 



Courtesy 0/ Cheney Bros. 



Warping or preparing silk 
for the loom. 



136 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

After the warp threads are twisted and wound on 
spools, the workman places the spools in racks (see 
Fig. 80). They are then unwound again on to a very 
large roller, as you can see in the picture. The large 




Courtesy of Cheney Bros. 
Fig. 81. — Silk weaving on a hand loom in Japan. 

roller is then put into the back of the loom, and the 
warp threads are drawn through and prepared so they 
are attached to the roller where the cloth is to be rolled 
after it is woven. Do you remember how we found 
the cloth and the warp rollers when we were studying 



MAKING GIFTS 137 

about how cotton cloth is made ? For plain silks a 
loom is used very much like the looms for weaving 
cotton cloth (see page 69) ; but, for fancy silks and 
beautiful patterns and designs, the Jacquard loom 
like the picture (see page 124) is necessary. This 
wonderful machine was invented by a Frenchman, 
Joseph Marie Jacquard, in 1801. The cards are 
cut in tiny holes which regulate the pattern and make 
beautiful designs. The cards control the warp threads 
and regulate which threads are to be up and which 
down, as the shuttle passes over and under. The 
shuttle is lined with soft seal skin to protect the silk 
fibers of the filling thread on the bobbin as they 
unroll. 

Would you too not like to visit a silk factory ? 
Perhaps come day you may be able to go to Paterson 
or to some large city, and may see all the wonderful 
things which Marjorie's cousin saw. The book pictures 
will give you a good idea of how a mill or factory looks 
inside. It is a very busy place. Perhaps your teacher 
may be able to get some stereopticon or motion picture 
views to show you, as Miss James showed the Pleasant 
Valley children. She used the church lantern. Some 
of the mothers and fathers came, too, to hear the story 
about silk. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Find on your map the most important city in the United 
States for the manufacture of silk. 

2. Write a story about the silk "throwing." 



138 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



3. If there is a silk mill in your neighborhood, plan to visit it 
with your teacher. 

4. Look up the story of Jacquard, the inventor of the loom 
devices for making beautiful patterns. 

Lesson 6 

the blanket stitch can be used in many ways 

Did you ever hear of a stitch called the blanket stitch ? It is 
very useful for decoration. We can make some attractive gifts 
if we know how to make it. Would you like to try to-day ? 

Did you ever notice how pretty some verandas look 
in summer time ? Mrs Stark of Pleasant Valley 



Vmw 




Fig. 82. — The blanket stitch. 



has a very attractive, cosy porch. Yours can look 
pretty, too, if you will give thought and a little time 
to it. You can plant some pretty vines as the girls 
did at the Ellen H. Richards house. The cucumber 



MAKING GIFTS 139 

grows wild and can be transplanted. Perhaps in 
the attic you can find an old table, which will do to 
hold your sewing things. Can you make a cover for 
it ? Perhaps you can make a porch cushion, too. 
The blanket stitch (Fig. 82) will be useful for both. 

Did you ever see a material called Russian crash ? 
It is made in Russia, of coarse linen, and is often woven 
in the fields. It is not very wide, 16 or 18 inches 
only. It is light brown in color. If you cannot get 
the crash, perhaps you have some grain or feed bags 
which will do. You can dip them in coffee to stain 
them light brown, as Marjorie Allen did when she made 
a cover for the porch table. A piece 1^ yards long 
and from 16 to 20 inches wide will make a good-sized 
table runner to throw over the old table on the porch. 
If you use the old bags and the edges are not selvedges, 
turn them with one turning \ inch wide all around the 
edges, and baste. 

How can you finish the edge of a table runner ? 
You can make the blanket stitch close together around 
the edge. A heavy mercerized cotton thread can be 
used for the stitch, and will look well if it is brown in 
color to harmonize with the linen or bag. The blanket 
stitch is used generally for blanket edges which are 
not hemmed. It is a stitch to prevent material from 
fraying, and is taken on the edge of material. When 
the cloth is not very heavy, one turning can be made 
to give firmness to the edge. This is not necessary on 
blankets or on heavy materials. The stitch is worked 



i 4 o CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

from left to right. The edge of the cloth is held to- 
wards the worker. Start with a few running stitches 
and bring the needle up near the edge. Have the 
thread under the thumb. Insert the needle any depth 
desired and point needle at right angles to the edge of 
the cloth, towards the worker. The needle should 
come up under the edge and through the loop made by 
the thread. The thread will be carried along the edge 
as the stitches are made. In finishing a thread, take 
small tiny stitches on the wrong side. In starting a 
new thread, bring it up through the last loop at the 
edge. On some materials the stitches can be \ or \ 
of an inch apart, or taken very close together as we do 
when we work on white linen and scallop the edges. 
The stitches can be \ or \ or even an inch deep, and 
they can be arranged to form a pattern. In the pic- 
ture you will see that the stitches are arranged in 
blocks — twelve low ones \ of an inch, and 12 of f 
of an inch. They can also be arranged to form stairs 
ascending and descending with a difference of \ of 
an inch in the depth of each stitch. Suppose you plan 
to make the block pattern of the blanket stitch all 
around the edge of the table runner. 

Now, can you make a porch cushion ? The porch 
cushion (Fig. 83) can be made of a strip of crash or of a 
piece of bagging, 1 yard long and 16 inches wide. 
Hem one end with a 1 inch hem and the other with a \ 
inch hem, turning both to wrong side. Fold so that 
the 1 inch hem overlaps the \ inch hem. Pin care- 



MAKING GIFTS 



141 




fully. This makes a kind of envelope and it can be 
filled later with a cushion of bran or excelsior or feathers. 
Fold so that the overlapping of hems comes about 4 
inches from one end of the cushion. After folding and 
pinning, baste carefully through the two thicknesses 
of material. Work the blanket stitch all around four 
sides with the heavy brown linen or cotton thread. 
Use the same block pat- 
tern as for the table 
cover. The cushion is 
kept closed with three or 
four snaps sewed on the 
hems. These cushions 
can be made any size for 
hammock or for porch FlG 83 ._ The porch cushion , sho wing 

USe. Mrs. Stark liked tne blanket stitch in block pattern, and 

,--.,., 11 1 1 the opening near one end. 

Molhe s so well that she 

made a whole set for her porch, and used old bags 

for this purpose. 

Can you think of any pretty articles to make for the 
fair or for surprise gifts on which the blanket stitch 
can be used ? Have you ever scalloped the edges 
of doilies with plain scallop ? The white linen can be 
cut in circles to fit the size of the plates and the edge 
marked in scallops by using a spool. The stitch is 
exactly the same, but the stitches are taken very close 
together and cover the two lines of the marked scallop 
which indicate the depth. Doilies are very useful 
instead of a tablecloth. They are easily laundered 



142 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



and save the heavy washing. A bare wooden table 
which is kept clean and oiled is very attractive when 
set with doilies. (See Food and Health, page 73). 
Can you make a set sometime as a surprise for 
mother's Christmas gift ? 




Fig. 84. — Blanket stitch made close together for a scalloped edge. 

Pincushion tops, bureau covers, table covers, tray 
covers, centerpieces, can all be made with this useful 
stitch. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Draw a picture on the blackboard of the blanket stitch. 

2. Bring to school some article on which the blanket stitch is 
used in some way. Have an exhibit of all the articles brought. 



Lesson 7 

learning to make the cross-stitch 

Did your grandmother ever tell you how she learned to sew 
when she was a girl ? Have you seen her sewing sampler ? Shall 
we learn the stitch she used on her sampler ? 



MAKING GIFTS 



143 



Before tjie days of sewing machines, the family 
sewing was all done at home and by hand. To-day we 
have factories and shops, and we can buy many articles 
of clothing ready-made. All little girls were taught 
to sew at home in those days. Sewing was not gener- 
ally taught at school. Many long seams were given to 




Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Fig. 85. — Two samplers of long ago. 

the girls to sew. The girls had much practice and 
learned to sew very well. Every little girl was supposed 
to make a sampler. The picture shows two samplers 
(Fig. 85). Barbara Oakes has two samplers which she 
values very much because her great-grandmother and 
grandmother made them. Perhaps you may have one 
which your grandmother made. The stitch used for 



144 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



the samplers was usually the cross-stitch (Fig. 87). 
Would you like to learn to make it, too ? It is a 
decorative stitch and is often used for marking linen. 
Grandmother and great-grandmother used to mark 
their sheets, pillowcases, and other household linens 
with tiny initials of cross-stitch. It is possible, also, 
to make quaint designs of the same stitch. Perhaps 
you would like to learn to make such a pattern. It is 





Fig. 86. — Cross-stitch designs can be easily made on squared paper. A, initials 
for towel; B, design for repetition on table cover or scarf. 

necessary to have squared paper and to make the 
crosses conform to the figures or initials wished. The 
picture (Fig. 86) shows how to make the crosses fit 
the squares. 

Will you try to make a design for the cross-stitch ? 
As the design is made on the squares, it is necessary 
to use squared canvas called Penelope canvas in work- 
ing this cross-stitch. The canvas is basted in place 
and the stitches made over the squares of the canvas, 
following the design of the pattern. There are some 



MAKING GIFTS 



145 



coarse materials which can be followed without using 
canvas. The canvas is woven so loosely that after the 
cross-stitch design is finished, the threads are drawn out. 
How to make the stitch : 

Baste the canvas carefully so that the warp of the 
canvas lies on the warp of the cloth. The canvas 
comes in several sizes, some finer than others, and this 
makes a difference in the size of the design when 
finished. The stitch consists of two slanting lines 
crossed. On the wrong 
side all the stitches may 
be either vertical or hori- 
zontal, but should be one 
or the other. Do you 
know the difference ? 
The canvas is so woven 
that one makes the cross 
over two threads high and two wide. Bring needle up to 
right side at lower left corner of the square that the stitch 
would form if inclosed (Fig. 87). Pass thread slanting 
across warp threads, and take stitch on line with warp, 
pointing needle towards the worker. When thread is 
drawn through, a slanting line of half the cross is made. 
This can be repeated across a whole row according to 
design, and the cross finished by returning from right 
to left with the same vertical stitches. It is necessary 
to have all the stitches of the design crossing one way : 
the ground stitches, or first half, one way ; the other 
half, or upper stitches, all the other. 




Fig. 87. — The cross-stitch. 



146 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



What pretty gifts can be made from the cross- 
stitch ? Towels hemstitched across the ends and 
marked with cross-stitch make attractive gifts for 
mother or grandmother. A pretty set for a baby is 
made by marking bath towel, face towel, and wash 
cloths with a pretty wreath design with baby's initial. 

Bureau covers, table 
scarfs, pincushions can be 
made. Here is a picture 
(Fig. 88) of a simple hand 
towel with cross-stitch 
initials. The towel is 
made of huckaback, all 
linen. You remember it 
can be bought in all cot- 
ton, too, or a combina- 
tion. Which is more 
expensive ? The width 
varies. The picture shows 
a small guest towel 18 
inches wide. It is easy 
to learn to hemstitch 
linen. Shall we try next lesson ? The picture (Fig. 
88) shows fancy hemstitching and drawn work. We 
shall learn the plain hemstitching. 




Fig. 88. 



A guest towel marked with 
cross-stitch. 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 



i. If any one in your town has an old sampler, try to get it for 
a loan exhibit, while the girls are making their cross-stitching. 



MAKING GIFTS 147 

2. Make a design for cross-stitch work suitable for an end of 
a towel or for any article you wish. 



Lesson 8 
how to make the hemstitch 

Do you know that some girls are often confused and call the 
hemstitch, the hemming stitch ? Barbara Oakes used to, but under- 
stands now. You have learned the hemming stitch ; now you will 
try the hemstitch. 

See if you can discover the difference between the 
hemming stitch and the hemstitch r Both are used 
at the top of the hem to hold it in place, but often the 
hemstitch is used in other places, too. It is necessary 
to draw out some threads of the cloth or linen, before 
the stitch can be made. For the hemstitched towel, 
measure for your hem. From the raw edge, it will 
be twice the width of the finished hem plus one turn- 
ing of j inch. How much, then, will you measure 
for a hem one inch when finished ? At the point 
measured, place a pin. Draw out three or four of the 
woof threads very carefully. Be sure to pull out the 
whole thread all the way across, when it breaks. 
Remember how the filling thread passes at the sel- 
vedge, and remove it there as it turns. Then baste the 
hem very carefully, turning to wrong side. Baste close 
to first drawn thread. Hold work over fingers of left 
hand in vertical position. Place needle in edge of 
hem, and draw thread without a knot under the edge of 



148 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



hem just exactly as plain hemming is started (Fig. 89). 
Throw thread away from the worker ; take up a bundle 
of the threads by passing the needle under them and 
pointing it towards the worker along the edge of the 
hem. Again pass the needle under the same bundle of 

threads, but this time 
pass the needle through 
the under cloth and also 
through the edge of the 
turned hem, just beyond 
the bundle. This stitch 
should come between two 
bundles of thread. Make 
the next stitch by taking 
up a second bundle of 
threads. At first, one 
should count the num- 
ber of threads so as to 
have the bundles uni- 
form ; but with practice 
this is not necessary. As 
a rule, the coarser the 
material, the fewer the 
number of threads taken 
up. This is a simple way of hemstitching. There areother 
ways. Double hemstitching means to hemstitch the other 
side opposite the hem, by taking up the same bundles. 
Marjorie Allen made Grandmother Allen a lovely hem- 
stitched towel for Christmas. She was very much 









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1 


1 L 


X 
- 


■ 


1 






L- L 






^ I 








1 1 


39C 






fl 








r 




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T 1 




r 




=1 






1 
















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Fig. 89. — The hemstitch. 



MAKING GIFTS 149 

surprised and delighted to have some of Marjorie's own 
work. Marjorie tied it up very daintily in white tissue 
paper and used some Christmas seals to hold it fast. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Now that you know the hemstitch, you can use it in many 
places. Can you tell how it differs from the hemming stitch ? 

2. Think of some useful things on which this stitch can be 
made besides those mentioned below : — 



Collars 


Cuffs 


Bags 


Covers 


Handkerchiefs 


Doilies 



Lesson 9 

another useful gift and a new stitch 

Have you ever noticed how convenient it is to have a place for 
the clothespins, on wash day ? Would you like to learn to make 
a clothespin bag ? 

How to make another gift. A very useful clothes- 
pin bag (Fig. 90) for mother can be easily made with 
a hammock hook and some ticking. Mrs. Allen 
says she cannot keep house without hers. Did you 
learn about ticking when you studied cotton materials ? 
Pillow covers and mattresses are made of it, as it is 
heavy and strong and wears very well. Put a piece 
in your cotton sample book. It is woven 36 inches 
wide and costs from 12 J cents up. Notice the weave. 
It is twilled or striped or herringbone weave. 



15° 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



.&p~ 



Denim or any heavy material can be used. A 
square piece is necessary, 28 X 28 inches. 

Hem. First turning, \ inch ; second turning, one 
inch. Stitch on machine. Miter the corners. The 
corners are to be sewed securely with heavy linen 
thread to the four corners of the hammock hook 
(Fig. 90). The hook is hung on the clothesline, and it 

is very easy and handy to 
push along as the clothes 
are hung up. If one wishes, 
the bag can be decorated 
with a catch stitch. 

How to make the catch 
stitch or herringbone stitch. 
This stitch can be used for 
decoration or for catching 
the edges of a seam or hem. 
Grandmother Allen used to 
use it on her own flannel 
petticoats % and on baby 
Alice's flannel skirts. After 
the plain seam is made, it is opened flat and the edges are 
caught with the loose catch stitch. It is really a flannel 
stitch, because, as the flannel may shrink a little, the 
stitch allows for this, and holds the hem flat. Flannel 
hems do not have the first turning as it is so thick. 
The catch stitch is then used to hold the hem. Can 
you bring one of baby's petticoats to show the class 
how it looks ? 




Fig. 90. — The clothespin bag. 



MAKING GIFTS 151 

The same stitch is used for decoration too. We 
shall use it for that purpose on the clothespin bag, 
before we sew the corners to the hook. 

The stitch is made from left to right. We can use 
the machine stitching for a guide. We shall use the 
stitch on the right side. It resembles cross-stitch. It is 
really a series of back stitches placed alternately above 
and below the guide line. The spaces between stitches 



A^%^s^v%^ 



Fig. 91. — The catch stitch. 

should be the same and the stitches below the guide 
line opposite the spaces above (Fig. 91). This causes 
the thread to slant and makes the cross, as it is worked 
from left to right. To start, draw needle to right side 
about I- inch below the line of machine stitch. The 
first back stitch is taken |- inch above the machine 
stitching. This will make the slanting line, as the 
stitch is | inch beyond the starting place. The 
second stitch is taken below the line ; and the direc- 
tions as above are followed so that stitches come 



152 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



opposite the spaces, above and below. In finishing 
an old thread, take two or three small stitches on 
wrong side. In beginning a new thread, draw up as 
at the start, so as to form the correct cross on the right 
side. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. This herringbone or catch stitch can be used in many places. 
Can you suggest any ? 

2. Draw a picture of this stitch on the blackboard 

3. Show some neighbor how to make this stitch. 

Lesson 10 



THE DARNING STITCH 

Did you know that sometimes darning is used for decoration 
instead of just on the stocking ? Let us make a gift using it. 

The darning stitch is nothing 
but fine running stitches placed 
alternately under one another 
so as to fill a space. Miss 
James has asked the girls to 
make linen covers for their cook- 
ing notebooks. They decide 
to put their two initials on the 
cover and to work them in out- 
line stitch. The sketch (Fig. 
92) shows how they will make 
them within an oblong which 

Jbic. 92. — 1 he darning stitches t > ° 

make the initials stand out. is also to be outlined. The darn- 




MAKING GIFTS 



153 



ing stitch will be used as 
a background to make the 
initials stand out. It is 
a fine running stitch. Any 
design can be made to 
stand out by arranging the 
darning back of the out- 
lined design/ The note- 
books will be covered so 
that the covers may slip 
off. This is done by over- 
handing the .edges and 
slipping the cover of the 
book into the pocket 
formed by the overhand- 
ing. The cover is all in 
one : a straight piece folded 
back inside the cover of book and overhanded at the 
folds, to hold the book. The picture (Fig. 93) of 
baby's bib also shows the use of the darning stitch 
to make a design stand out. This is a bib used by 
little Alice Allen. Marjorie made it for her, when she 
was two years old and had a birthday party. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Make a design for your notebook cover. 

2. Calculate size of piece of material needed, if both covers are 
9x6. Allow J inch turnings all around. 

3. Try to plan a design with a background of darning stitches. 
Perhaps you can use it on a Christmas gift for brother* 




Fig. 93. — The darning stitch makes the 
design of the rabbits stand out. 



i 5 4 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

REVIEW PROBLEMS 

I. Plan a gift for father's Christmas on which the darning or 
cross-stitch is used. 

II. Look up the story of the history of silk culture and write a 
story to be read in school. Perhaps it may be as good as the one 
Barbara Oakes wrote. Her story was "printed in the " Pleasant 
Valley News." 




CHAPTER IV 

THE PLEASANT VALLEY GIRLS LEARN TO CARE 
FOR THEIR CLOTHES AND TO HELP REPAIR THE 
HOUSEHOLD LINEN. 



Have you ever noticed that some houses where you 
visit are always neat and look well cared for, and that 
the towels and table linen are carefully darned or 
patched ? Have you seen what a difference there is in 
the appearance of the people who do not care for their 
houses and clothing, and those who do ? The latter 
are apt to wear neat-looking shirt waists, to patch the 
worn places and darn the holes before they are too large, 
and to sew on the buttons before they are lost. The 
little word C-A-R-E is reponsible for the difference. 
Have you learned to help at home to repair and care 
for the clothing and household linens ? " A stitch in 
time saves nine." It often saves money and time, too. 
Do you know why ? Learn how. The Pleasant Valley 
girls learned to darn and patch and occasionally Miss 
James had a " repair day," when all were permitted to 
bring their mending. Can you do this at your school ? 

155 



i S 6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Lesson i 



CARE OF CLOTHES 

What are some of the things to learn in order to care for one's 
clothes ? 

Marjorie Allen's Cousin Ann, who lives at Paterson, 
New Jersey, spends her summer vacation with Marjorie 
at Pleasant Valley. Marjorie knows 
that she earns ten dollars a week at 
the office and pays all her own ex- 
penses. She always looks very neat 
and well dressed. What is the secret ? 
She has learned how to spend wisely 
and how to care for her clothing. 
She learned much of this at school, 
and experience has taught her how 
to manage. Suppose we learn, too, 
so as to be able to care for our 
clothes. Here are some of the things 
Marjorie's cousin learned : 




Fig. 94. — Ethel Allen re- 



1. That clothes, if well brushed, look 

members about the les- better. 

son on neatness. She is 2# ^ well-pressed suit or skirt lasts longer 
removing a spot. , , , 

and looks neater. 

3. Stains or spots spoil one's neat appearance and look careless. 

4. A patch or a darn is no disgrace. They make one feel more 
self-respecting than holes or tears. They help to increase the life 
of a garment, too, if taken in time. 

5. That being careful each day saves much time; a little care 
is worth while. 



CARING FOR CLOTHES 157 

Let us study to-day how to do some of these things. 
Perhaps we can clean our school coats or some wool 
garments brought from home. 

Brushing clothes. Many people who live in large 
cities do not have gardens and yards where they can 
hang their clothes and brush them. Often brushing 
and cleaning must be done on the roofs of houses. How 
glad we should be for space and a chance to keep clean. 
The Pleasant Valley girls have studied about this. Do 
you know that it costs to keep clean ? It takes time 
and energy and much thought. People who live in 
the country can keep clean more easily than city 
people. This is a good way to air and brush your 
cloth garments : Hang them on the line, and beat with 
a clothes beater. Turn the cuffs or collars and pockets 
inside out if possible. Brush with a whisk brush care- 
fully all over. Shake free from dust and let them hang 
in the sunshine. They will smell sweet and clean. 

Pressing suits and skirts. A suit or skirt which is 
kept well pressed has a neater appearance and keeps 
its shape for a longer time. Tailors do this work ; but 
one can learn to do it at home, if no tailor is near, and 
can save the money, too, if one has the time. It is a 
good general rule to press on the wrong side unless one 
is using the steaming process. Then, one presses on 
the right side, over dampened cloth. Wring the cloth, 
place over a portion of the garment, and press with 
hot irons until nearly dry. After steaming the gar- 
ment all over on the right side, turn to the wrong side 



1 58 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

and press dry. Woolen goods will mark or shine if 
pressed on the right side without a cloth. This press- 
ing will add to the life of a suit. Good press boards, 
tailors' cushions, and sleeve boards help very much if 
one has them. 

It is always wise to examine clothes before pressing 
and to remove any spots which have accumulated. 
Grease, milk, oil, sugar are common spots which girls 
are apt to get on their woolen clothing. The Pleasant 
Valley girls studied how to remove these. 

Removing stains and spots. Woolen goods which 
are soiled and badly spotted can be cleaned by washing 
in warm water with soap solution or soap bark. Here 
are some recipes for making soap solution or soap 
bark : 

Soap Solution. Simmer (do not boil) one cake of white soap in 
two or three quarts of water. 

Soap Bark. I cup of soap bark or powder in three or four 
quarts of water. Let it stand two hours. Strain and pour into 
the lukewarm water in which the material is to be washed. Why 
is lukewarm water used ? Wash and rinse carefully. Always use 
water of same temperature for rinsing. What would the shock of 
cold water do ? Bath temperature is about right. 

All woolen garments should be washed and rinsed 
carefully in lukewarm water only. Some day we shall 
try at school. Good pure white soap is best for woolens. 
Why do woolens shrink in hot water ? Why are they 
difficult to cleanse ? 

Let us examine the school coats to see if we can find 



CARING FOR CLOTHES 159 

grease. As a rule grease spots can be removed by 
washing with soap solution and lukewarm water. 
Wagon grease can be removed with lard ; then wash in 
warm water. Grease may also be removed by dry 
cleaning, or chemical cleaning as it is called. The clean- 
ing liquid may be benzine or ether. This is a warning : 
D-A-N-G-E-R. These must not be used near fire or 
an explosion will occur. A bad accident occurred at 
Pleasant Valley in just this way when Mrs. Leroy was 
cleaning her white gloves. Rub the spot on the 
wool garment with a cloth or sponge wet with benzine. 
The grease or fat spreads when dissolved ; a piece of 
blotting paper under will help to absorb some of the 
grease. Care must be taken to use fresh benzine as 
each rub removes some of the fat, which will spread if 
rubbed in again. It is usually wise to use as a sponge 
a piece of the same material. Rub towards the center 
so as to avoid a ring. The spot cleaned will usually be 
lighter than the rest of the garment, which is apt to be 
soiled. Sometimes by rubbing the surface near the spot 
all over, the ring will not be noticeable. Another way 
to remove grease is to try a warm iron and a blotting 
paper. Place paper on right side, iron on the wrong 
side of the cloth. This will remove some grease spots, as 
the blotter absorbs it. 

Marjorie Allen discovered that sugar spots can be 
removed with warm water. Dip cloth in water and 
wash thoroughly and rinse before pressing. What 
does the warm water do to the sugar ? 



i6o 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



Milk spots can be removed from some materials 
with cold water and pure white soap. Why cold ? 

Machine oil spots can be removed by washing in 
cold water and pure white soap. This will remove 




Courtesy of Miss Alice Blair. 

Fig. 95. — Which way do you arrange clothes in your closet ? 

most machine oil spots. Barbara Oakes got some oil 
on her nightdress while making it, and removed 
the oil easily in this way. 

These simple rules will help every girl to be neat. Let 
us see how many garments you can clean at home after 
you have learned to brush, clean, and press one at schooL 



CARING FOR CLOTHES 



161 



Protecting clothes. Marjorie's cousin takes good 
care of her clothing while it is in use. When she works 
about the house she always wears an apron. Do you ? 
This saves a great deal. You 
know how to make some attrac- 
tive ones. 

When she removes her clothing 
it is not thrown in a heap, but is 
hung up on skirt or coat hangers. 
They are very cheap or one can 
make them. Barrel staves or 
even rolls of newspaper, rolled 
securely and covered may be used 
as coat hangers, a cord or ribbon 
may be tied at the center. Nails 
between two points in a closet 
will keep the bands of skirts ex- 
tended, when loops are sewed to 
the bands. Marjorie's cousin al- 
ways airs her clothes at night 
(Fig. 56 ), and when necessary 
washes her shields and hangs them up to dry. Many 
girls do not realize how necessary this is. The odor of 
perspiration is not neat and is offensive to others. If 
one washes one's self carefully with warm water in 
which borax has been dissolved this odor will not be 
noticeable. Marjorie noticed that her cousin has covers 
over her good clothes (Fig. 96). This saves a great deal. 
Also she is particular about sewing buttons on her 




Fig. 96. — A useful cover to 
protect your best dress. 



l62 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



shoes, and braid on her skirt when it is torn. She also 
washes the yokes of her dresses and sometimes her own 
shirt waists. She is going to teach Marjorie to do this. 
Some day we shall learn at school. Do you know that 
Marjorie discovered that the people at the summer 
boarding houses near have difficulty in having their 

dainty shirt waists carefully 
laundered. She is going to 
practice during the winter 
and next summer she will 
earn some money in that 
way. It is a good idea. 
Perhaps some day she may 
have a laundry of her own, 
if she is a good manager 
and can have help to work 
with her. 

Cousin Ann told Marjorie 
that each winter she is par- 
ticular about buying a pair 
of rubbers. She finds they 
save her shoes because they 
prevent the dampness and wet from rotting the thread 
of the shoes. She is particular about having her heels 
straight. Cousin Ann believes that many girls lose good 
positions because they are not clean and neat about their 
personal appearance. Run over heels are not neat. 
Ann is careful about having her shoes resoled when 
necessary, and so lengthens their life. She wears an old 




Fig. 97. 



Cousin Ann thinks about 
these things. 



CARING FOR CLOTHES 163 

pair of shoes on rainy days with her rubbers. Ann 
knows that wet feet are dangerous. One may not feel 
the results at once, but sometime the effect on health 
will be felt. 

Next lesson let us learn how to keep our clothing 
darned. You may bring any garment or towel or 
other piece of household linen which has a tear, and 
we shall learn to darn it. 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Carry some of your clothes to the back yard. Brush them, 
and hang them in the sunshine. 

2. Try at home to press your wool skirt. Steam it ; it is not 
difficult to do. 

3. Do you know of any other way besides those Cousin Ann 
tried, of keeping your clothes clean so as to prevent them from 
getting spotted ? 

4. Do you not think that knowing how to launder shirt waists 
carefully would be a good way to earn money when the summer 
boarders come to your town ? 



Lesson 2 
learning to darn straight tears 

What threads of the cloth are torn, in a square tear ? in a straight 
tear ? How can we replace these threads and prevent the article 
from tearing further ? 

There is always a collection of garments needing 
repairs in any home where there are boys and girls. 



164 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



What a help it will be to mother to have some one who 
can darn some of the tears. Mrs. Alden was very 











° n ? t\ n n n n n n n n n r* n ° r 



Si 



Kzzi 

CT-- 

crrj 



ciir 



Fig. 98. — These tears run in different directions. Which kind 
of a tear will you have to darn in your dress ? 



glad that Florence was learning to darn, for she has 
so many things to patch and darn for her family. How 
many different kinds of tears have been brought to-day ? 



CARING FOR CLOTHES ,165 

Yes, here is a straight tear on this napkin ; yes, two 
straight tears. Who can tell which threads have been 
torn in this first tear ? Find the selvedge ; the tear 
runs across the selvedge. In the second straight tear, 
the tear runs up and down with the selvedge, or warp. 
Which threads have been torn ? Here is a garment 
with a square corner tear. John Alden tore his overalls 
climbing over the barbed wire fence. In this tear 
which threads have been torn ? So we see that in 
some tears, the warp is torn ; in others, the filling 
threads ; and in others, like the square tear, both 
warp and filling threads. Now darning means putting 
back the threads which have been worn or torn away. 
Miss James told her class it is very useful to keep some 
black and white wash net in the mending basket. A 
little piece basted under the worn or torn place to be 
darned is a great help ; for it reenforces the weak 
place and makes it last longer. It is put on the wrong 
side of the article to be darned. The picture 
(Fig. 98) shows two straight tears : a slanting one, 
and also a square corner tear. Everyone knows 
how to make the running stitch. Darning is 
fine running. Begin without a knot and a little 
beyond the tear for strength. Fill in the missing thread 
with rows of stitches close together. The stitches 
should extend far enough each side of the tear to take 
in the worn part also.. In turning at the end of each 
row, leave a tiny loop. Why ? Do not leave a very 
large one, but simply one large enough to allow for 



166 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

stretching and pulling in washing. In passing over 
the threads at the torn place, try to make the stitches 
hold down the threads. In finishing extend the rows 
beyond the tear as at the beginning. Either a warp 
or woof straight tear is mended in this way. A square 
tear is a combination of the two. At the corner there 
will then be both warp and filling threads and a double 
darn like a weave. Can you see from the picture 
how this will look ? The thread should match as nearly 
as possible. Sometimes horsehair or human hair makes 
a good darning thread when one does not wish the 
darn to show, or split silk thread or No. 150 cotton. 
Ravelings of the same cloth are sometimes used. The 
size of the needle will depend on the fineness of the 
cloth to be darned. No. 8 is right for ordinary 
darning. 

Where can you use this darn ? Is it the same as 
stocking darn ? Next lesson every one is to bring from 
home a stocking, white, brown, or black. Can you 
mend one at school to surprise mother or father or 
brother ? The Pleasant Valley girls did. Mr. Allen 
said Marjorie darned his socks so well that he couldn't 
even feel the darn when he walked ! 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Show mother how you can mend a straight tear by mending 
one for her at home. Perhaps there is a straight tear in her dress, 
or in a towel or napkin. 

2. Why is it worth while to mend it ? 



CARING FOR CLOTHES 



167 



Lesson 3 



DARNING STOCKINGS 

We all have stockings to darn each week as they come from the 
laundry. Do you mend the small holes at once, or let them grow 
larger ? 

It is always a saving of time and energy to take care of the small 
holes ; small ones grow to be larger ones if one is not careful. It 
pays to mend at once. We will learn how to mend stockings. 

Stocking darning differs from darning the straight 
or the square tear, because, as a 
rule, there is a hole in the stock- 
ing. The stocking material is worn 
away, and it is necessary to replace 
it with a small piece of weaving 
over and under of warp and filling. 
A patch or extra piece of material 
might be placed under the hole, 
but that would be uncomfortable ; 
so a woven piece is put in. The 
stocking is made of knitted mate- 
rial called stockinet, not of woven 
cloth. How do they differ ? Can 
you think of other articles of cloth- 
ing made of knitted material ? 
Yes, mittens, sweaters, caps, under- 
wear. Have you ever seen a knit- 
ting machine ? Here is a picture (Fig. 99) of one show- 
ing how the stocking is knitted in the factory to-day 




Courtesy of H. Brinton Co. 

Fig. 99. — The knitting ma- 
chine. Caps, stockings, 
and underwear are made 
on similar machines. 



168 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

on the knitting machines. In weaving there are two 
threads. What are they ? In knitting there is only 
one thread ; just like grandmother's knitting of the 
stocking round and round as the tiny loops are formed. 
Have you ever torn your stocking in a loop and had 
it run right down the whole leg of the stocking ? Bar- 
bara Oakes had this experience. That shows how the 
tiny loops are made. If one catches the loop, the 
raveling is prevented. 

This is how we shall darn our stockings. Use 
single or double darning thread, according to the fine- 
ness of the stocking, and a darning needle. Can you 
thread the big eye by doubling the end of the thread ? 

Begin on the wrong side without a knot, about J of 
an inch to the right of the hole. The stitches are 
the same fine running as for other darning, and 
the rows made close together. Look at the pic- 
ture (Fig. ioo). The darn is about diamond shape 
when finished. Why ? This prevents the strain from 
coming on any one row of loops. A tiny loop is 
left at each row in turning, as stockinet is a stretchy 
material. This darning should run the same way as 
the loops, up and down the material. Care must 
be taken at the hole. If possible, pass the needle 
through the loop at the edge of the hole and extend 
the thread across the hole to the loop opposite, and 
continue with the darning stitch. When the warp 
is all in, there will be rows of threads close together 
extending across the hole. In fine darning or when 



CARING FOR CLOTHES 



169 



one is darning sweaters or gloves, all the loops at the 
edge of the hole should be carefully caught. For 
everyday stocking darning, one does not have time to 
stop for every loop at the edge of the hole. 
As we said above, the hole is to be filled in with a 
piece of woven material which we are making. The 



.fliSiilni'imiiiT* 



of,! 1 *! 1 , 



mask, 










» »i» lit* 
li» i'i' w 

I'lll'U' 






n« •' 



..i il'l'li'lll!, 



Hn. 




iT.TiIii.iTi^iTTiWj 



rai'iV,i»il 

U |I|'U 



l!i!iJ J 



Fig. 100. — ^, the wrong side of the stocking darn putting in the first set of 
threads; B, weaving in the second thread. 



warp (Fig. 100 A) has all been put in ; then we must go 
over part of the darn and fill in the cross threads, which 
are woven over and under the warp threads which have 
been put in at the hole. The running stitch is used. 
The sketch (Fig. 100 B) shows the portion of the darn 
to be covered with the running stitches, and just where 
the weaving is to be done. You will notice that the 
first row of crosswise running stitches is placed a little 



i 7 o CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

below the hole, and the last row extends a little above. 
Why ? At the hole one must go over and under the 
warp, alternately, as one does in weaving. This is all 
done with one thread which is carried in fine running 
stitches to the hole, then passes over and under the 
warp threads, and continues with running stitches at 
the other side of darn ; turns with a tiny loop, con- 
tinues with running, and again passes over and under 
the warp alternately. This is continued until the 
darn is completed. 

Sometimes there are tiny rips in the seams of stock- 
ings. They can be overhanded carefully on the wrong 
side, taking up only the very edges of the seam so as not 
to make a ridge. If the long ladders which sometimes 
come in stockings are not too wide, they can be over- 
handed together on the wrong side ; or, if one has 
time, they can be darned as a hole. As a rule this is a 
waste of time. A worn place near a hole should be 
included in a darn, or where several small holes are 
close together, darn in one large darn. 

What kind of stockings do you buy ? Marjorie's 
Cousin Ann says it does not pay her to buy very cheap 
stockings, at 15 cents a pair, or very thin ones either. 
She has discovered that if she pays 25 cents a pair or 
a dollar for three pairs of a good make, and cares for 
them, watching when the tiny holes appear, that she 
can make six pairs last a whole year. Ann says that 
the girls who buy the very thin transparent stockings 
are buying stockings all the time ; and then, too, they 



REPAIRING LINEN 171 

are often ridiculed by others. One is not well dressed 
when one is conspicuous and when one's clothing is 
noticed and criticized in such a way. 

Next lesson you may bring a stocking which has been 
darned at home. Credit will be given for this. Do 
you think you can darn one all alone ? It is not diffi- 
cult if one follows carefully the description above. 
You may also bring a linen towel or napkin or table- 
cloth which has a hole. We shall learn how to patch 
the holes. The Pleasant Valley pupils had a darning 
contest. Mrs. Allen was invited to be the judge. 
Who do you suppose made the best-looking stocking 
darn ? Mollie Stark won. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

I. Darn one of father's socks or baby sister's stocking or any 
other you can at home. Surprise mother by showing her how 
well you can darn, after your school practice. 

Lesson 4 

patching saves clothing and other articles 

Some holes are too large to darn ; they are, then, repaired with 
a patch. Would you like to learn how to patch ? 

How to make the hemmed patch. A patch is a 
piece of cloth cut larger than the worn hole and used 
to cover the hole. The hemmed patch is the simplest 
and most useful. It is sewed with the hemming stitch 
and so called the hemmed patch because all the rough 



172 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



edges of the patch are turned under and hemmed flat. 
This kind of patch is used on garments or household 
articles which are to be laundered. It is a good one 
for towels, napkins, or tablecloths, and for underwear. 
Perhaps you have some tablecloths, napkins, and towels 
which have been brought to patch to-day. Miss 




Fig. ioi. — The patch as it should look on the wrong side in process of hemming. 



James brought some for her class. For patches some 
girls brought pieces as nearly like the towels and napkins 
which they brought as possible. It is better to patch 
with material which has been used, than with new 
material. Why ? The hemmed patch is always put 
on the wrong side. Cut a square or oblong piece which 
will cover the hole, and extend beyond the worn part. 



REPAIRING LINEN 



i73 



Allow \ inch extra all around for turnings. Crease this 
patch diagonally. Find the center of the hole of the 
worn article. Crease it in diagonal lines for a square 
or oblong, according to shape of place to be patched. 
Pin patch on wrong side so that diagonal creases of 
patch fall on diagonal creases of the article. Turn to 



t 1 1 & i / 



y//// 






»l 



Fig. 102. — Hemming the patch in place, on the right side. 

right side. Cut the hole, removing all frayed edges 
until it is a true square or oblong, measuring from 
the center where diagonal creases cross. After cutting, 
make a tiny slanting cut from £ to \ inch at each corner 
on the diagonal creases of the article, and turn under 
these cut edges. Pin and baste carefully. Turn to 
wrong side. Hold to light to see if the patch is the 



174 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

same width on all sides of the hole. Trim if necessary. 
Remove pins, flatten, turn edges of the patch by 
opposites, and baste. The hemming stitch is then used 
on both the right and wrong sides of the patch to hold 
the edges. This patch is laundered flat and neat. For 
next lesson we shall study about the table linen and 
towels. We know that some of them are linen. Where 
does linen come from ? Do you know whether it is a 
plant or an animal ? There are several reference books 
on the shelf. See how much you can discover about 
this secret. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Practice making a hemmed patch at home. Mother will 
surely have a tablecloth or an undergarment or an apron which 
needs a patch. Try to keep the patch very flat. 

2. See how much you can learn about linen before next lesson. 

Lesson 5 

the story of how linen is grown 

What is the story of our linen materials ? 

Where do they come from ? Would you like to know ? 

Mollie's Stark's Uncle John has just come to Pleasant 
Valley. He is her father's brother and has been in the 
linen business in Ireland. He told the Girls' League 
the other evening about flax and about how it is made 
into cloth. This is the story he told. It has also 
been printed in the " Pleasant Valley News." Have 
you read it ? 



REPAIRING LINEN 175 

Where does flax grow ? Ireland is a cool country, 
and flax is a plant which grows well in cool places. 
Cotton, we have learned, is grown in warm countries. 
Do you know that Russia produces about half of the 
world's supply of flax ? Find your map of Europe, 
and see if you can locate all these countries. The 
Russian flax is rather inferior in quality. 
Ireland and Belgium produce the best 
quality of fiber. Flax is also grown in 
Holland and France, and in Egypt and 
Italy. The United States grows some 
flax ; but it is a rather coarse fiber used 
for crash and for bagging. The United 
States grows very little flax and only for 
the coarser purposes. This is for the 
reason that labor is very expensive ; and 
flax, like silk, needs much care if weeded 
and grown for fiber. The care of the 
worms makes silk expensive. Flax grown 
for seed or coarse purposes does not re- 
quire SO much Care. Fig 103. — The flax 

What is the flax plant ? Perhaps your ^ncShdgh? 
teacher will buy some flax seed which 
you can plant in the school garden. The Pleasant 
Valley girls did, and it grew quite tall. Then you can 
really see how the growing plant looks. Your teacher 
will have some dry flax to show you. Do you know 
how a waving field of wheat or oats looks ? Flax is 
planted thickly when it is grown for its fiber. It comes 




176 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

up straight like the wheat and does not branch. When 
it is planted for its seed, it is not planted so thickly be- 
cause it must have more room to branch and bear seed. 
Flaxseed is used for many purposes. Flaxseed, or lin- 
seed, oil is used for paints and varnishes, and even for 
food, in some countries. Like cotton seed, the dry cake, 
or meal, left is a valuable food for cattle. Has mother 
ever used the oil or the meal for anything at home ? 

The flax plant as it grows is from 20 to 40 inches in 
height. It has lovely little blue flowers on the stems 
which branch at the top. Uncle John knew a little 
girl at Pleasant Valley who thought the flax came 
from the little brown seed pods on top, just as the cotton 
comes from the seed pod, or boll. It does not ; for 
the flax fiber is the part of the long stem which grows 
just inside of the outside woody portion. So, you see 
flax fibers can be from 20 to 40 inches long, according 
to the height of the plant. The wonderful part of the 
stqry is how the fibers are removed from the long stems. 

How is flax grown ? Flax requires much hand labor 
in its care while growing. The women and children 
in Europe weed it and care for it, on their hands and 
knees. When it is full grown and the flowers have come 
and gone, the tiny seed pods grow where the flowers 
have fallen, just like the seed pods your peonies or 
poppies grow. Before the seeds are quite ripe, and 
while the stalks are brownish yellow, the flax is ready 
to be pulled. It is not cut like wheat with the reaper 
and gathered into bundles, but must be pulled up by 



REPAIRING LINEN 



177 



the roots. This is done in clear weather, by hand. The 
pulled flax is laid on the ground with the roots together 
and the stalks parallel. The stalks are then bound 
something like the wheat, and stacked in stooks. You 
have often seen oats or wheat so stacked. 




Courtesy of United States Department of Agriculture. 

Fig. 104. — The stooks of flax. 

What is rippling and retting flax ? The next process 
is to remove all the seeds without injuring the long 
fibers. The machine for this looks like a comb made 
of iron teeth set in a wooden frame. This frame is 
placed on a cloth so as to collect all the seed as it falls. 
This is called rippling, and is done in the fields. The 
seed pods are drawn across the teeth which remove 



i 7 8 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 




Courtesy of Speyer School, New York. 
Fig. 105. — This little girl is rippling flax 



the seeds. Then the flax 
is bound in bundles for 
the next process, which is 
retting. This is really the 
most important part of all, 
for it means rotting the 
outside woody portion of 
the stem so as to get the 
flax fiber. This woody 
portion is of no value. 
The flax is sometimes 



by hand at school. Can you see the retted by dew ; just left On 

the ground at night. You 
know how wet the grass can be early in the morn- 
ing. So the dew, rain, air, and sunshine decompose 




Courtesy of Woolman & McGowan, Textiles. 

Fig. 106. — Flax retting at Courtrai, Belgium. 

the outside woody bark. This is a very slow process. 
More often flax is retted in water. The bundles are 



REPAIRING LINEN 



179 



placed in crates or boxes, and left for about two weeks 
under water. If you grow some flax, you can ret it 
also and remove the fiber. Do you know what takes 
place when the woody part decomposes ? It is called 
fermentation. What have you learned about fermen- 
tation ? (See Food and Health.) After retting, the 
flax is spread to dry in 
the fields and is then 
ready for the next pro- 
cess, called breaking. Just 
think of how many things 
have been done to the 
fibers of our linen towels 
and napkins and dresses, 
which we use every day. 
Jane Smith said she never 
realized before how many 
hands prepare our cloth- 
ing and other materials. 
What is meant by break- 
ing flax ? Breaking means 
removing the dry wood 
portion which has been decomposed by the retting. 
This is sometimes done by means of a hand break. In 
the picture (Fig. 107) you will see a little girl of Pleasant 
Valley breaking flax by hand. Sometimes the woody 
part is broken away by passing the flax between rollers 
of a machine which is run by power. These power mills 
are called scutching mills ; scutching means cleaning and 




Fig. 107. 



Courtesy of Speyer School, New York. 
Flax breaking done by hand. 



i8o 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 




breaking. After this process the flax lies in long bundles 
of parallel fibers, something like a girl's hair as it is 
ready to be braided. The flax varies in color ; some- 
times it is gray or of a 
greenish tint, and some- 
times pale yellow. 

If you have a microscope 
or a glass at school, ex- 
amine the flax fiber. See 
how it looks, rough and 
woody. It also looks some- 
thing like the silk fibers, 
straight. It has tiny mark- 
ings or spots called nodes. 

Fig. 108.- Flax fibers magnified. j^ j ? principally Cellu- 

lose. Do you know what cellulose means ? Look it up 
in the dictionary. 

So you see that the long fibers are freed from the 
stem of the flax plant and are ready for the manu- 
facturer to spin into yarn to be woven into cloth, or 
to make it into cord, rope, twine, 
lace, or thread for many useful 
purposes. Isn't this an interest- 
ing story ? Flax cultivation is 
one of the most ancient indus- 
tries. Think how very useful it 
is, both for fiber and for seed. It has been grown for at 
least 5000 years in Egypt and in Assyria. Do you re- 
member reading about the ancient mummies which have 




Fig. 109. — The mummies of 
Egypt are found wrapped in 
linen cloth made from flax 
long ago. 



REPAIRING LINEN 181 

been found wrapped in linen in the tombs of Egypt ? 
In the Bible, chapter xlii of the book of Genesis, we are 
told that Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in vestures of fine 
linen. Do you know of any other Bible references which 
tell of the use of linen in ancient times ? Have you ever 
heard of the Swiss lake dwellers ? Perhaps your teacher 
will tell you about them, or you can look it up in the 
encyclopedia. They too used linen long ago, for pieces 
have been found and are in the museums in Switzerland. 
Next lesson we shall make a large chart for the school- 
room, which will tell the story of flax. You may bring 
anything which you think will help to illustrate that 
story. We shall also mount on the chart the most 
common linen materials which we use in our homes. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Examine a flax fiber with a microscope or a magnifying glass. 
What do you see ? 

2. Look up references which prove the age of flax culture. 

3. Perhaps some one near your school has been in the linen 
business in Ireland. Perhaps he will come to the school and tell 
the boys and girls about it. Try to find some one. 

Lesson 6 

common linen materials are identified 

Can we learn to identify at least eight of the common linen 
materials ? 

To-day we shall study about the different linen ma- 
terials, and then see what we have to mount on our 



1 82 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

school chart. If you prefer, you may make a book of 
linen materials like the cotton and silk. 

Let us divide the pieces which have been brought 
to school into two piles : the thin, and the thicker ones. 
We have more of the thick ones. Yes, we all know the 
heavy coarse linen is called Russian crash. We used 
it for our porch cushions or covers. It comes from 
1 8 to 36 inches in width and costs from 15 cents a yard 
up to 75 cents sometimes. We know it is used for 
dresses, and sometimes for toweling and upholstery 
uses. It is unbleached in color. 

This wide sample is linen sheeting. Our great-grand- 
mothers always had linen sheets of flax which they 
grew, spun, and wove, because long ago cotton was not 
grown. Some of the Pleasant Valley girls saw these 
sheets which Grandmother Allen made. Sheeting 
comes in several widths, and costs about $1 per yard 
up. Cotton sheeting is cheaper. 

The one thin one is handkerchief linen. It costs 
from 60 cents to $2.00 per yard. What kind of a 
weave is it ? What is it used for ? The other thin 
piece is called batiste. It, too, is used for waists and 
dress linens, and it is fine and sheer. It can be used 
for handkerchiefs too. It costs about #1.00 per yard 
up, according to the fineness, and is 1 yard or more 
wide. Batiste is made of cotton, also, and is then 
cheaper. 

The weave of this piece is different. You have a 
cotton sample of the same weave. Yes, it is called 



REPAIRING LINEN 183 

bird's-eye pattern. It is used for toweling and costs 
about 30 cents per yard, 24 inches wide. 

Here is another. piece used also for toweling. You 
all know its name. Huckaback is correct. We have 
also cotton huckaback, and some huckaback made of 
half linen and half cotton. It is woven in a pattern 
which absorbs easily. The filling thread shows more 
on the surface than the warp threads. It is woven 
18 inches and wider, and costs 15 cents up. 

Every one knows this one. Our tablecloths and 
napkins are of damask. It is a lovely material made 
in beautiful patterns. Sometimes it is all linen and 
sometimes a mixture. There is also cotton damask 
for table napkins and cloths. It is much cheaper. 
The cloths are woven 1 yard wide or wider, and for 
damask towels from 16 to 36 inches. One can spend a 
great deal for beautiful damask towels and napkins. 

This plain coarse linen is called butchers' linen, be- 
cause it wears very well and butchers sometimes have 
their aprons made of it. It is used, too, for dress 
skirts, and is very satisfactory. It is woven from 27 
to 44 inches in width and costs from 40 cents to #1.50 
per yard. 

The heavy stiff piece is a linen canvas and is used by 
tailors for the interlining of cuffs and collars of coats. 
It costs 25 cents per yard and is 27 to 36 inches wide. 

Suppose our chart is 24 X 20 inches. Perhaps a 
cardboard or cover of an old box will do if your teacher 
has nothing else. Put two holes near the top in the 



1 84 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

middle of the 20 inches side and run a cord through 
for hanging. At one edge down one side place the 
common linen materials with their names and uses, etc. 

Let us see what the girls have brought. Here is a 
bottle of linseed oil. Yes, and some flax seeds. Jane 
has brought a linen collar. Here is a small china doll 
wrapped as a mummy. Marjorie's grandmother has 
sent some flax which she grew and prepared herself, 
and a piece of an old hand-woven towel which she made 
when a girl. And here is some hand-spun flax ! Notice 
how rough it looks. We have, also, some cord and 
twine and some linen thread. Do you know that 
Paterson, New Jersey, where Marjorie's Cousin Ann 
works in the silk mill, is also a great center for linen 
thread manufacture ? Thread is made by twisting 
fine yarns together. The twisting makes them strong. 
They are then dyed or bleached white. Much of our 
linen thread is unbleached in color. Why ? 

Suppose we draw a picture of the flax stalk and 
flower on our chart and fasten some of the school- 
grown flax to it. All the other things can be arranged 
and fastened too, by punching holes in the cardboard 
and tying them on with cord. 

What an interesting story it makes. Perhaps the chil- 
dren of the lower classes would like to hear the story 
told by one of the seventh grade girls some morning. 

Next lesson you may bring any table linen or towels 
which are stained ; and we shall learn how to remove 
the stains. 



REPAIRING LINEN 185 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Draw a picture of the flax plant, and color the flowers with 
your crayons. 

2. Prepare the chart telling the story of flax. 

3. Look up the story of how linen thread is prepared. 

4. See how many linen materials you can find at home. 



Lesson 7 

removing common stains from table linen 

Some of the common stains one finds on table linen are coffee, 
tea, fruit, rust, or grass stains. Do you know how to remove them ? 

When should stains be removed ? A good house- 
keeper always looks over the clothing and household 
linens before putting them to soak. Mrs. Allen says 
she usually does this on Monday. Do you know why ? 
She spends this day getting ready for wash day. She 
bakes and prepares certain foods for her family for 
two days ; and so the work is easier on Tuesday and 
Wednesday, when she washes and irons. Fruit, coffee, 
or tea stains on linen should be removed as soon after 
the stain appears as possible. If this is not done, then 
certainly the stains must be removed before putting 
the linen into the tub. White clothes are boiled. 
What will this do to the stains if they are not 
removed ? 

How can stains be removed ? Let us try to remove 
these spots one at a time. I think we have six or seven 
different kinds on the articles which have been brought 



1 86 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

to school to-day. Your teacher will show you how to 
follow the directions. 

Coffee and tea stains are the most common on table 
linen. To remove, wash in lukewarm water, and then 
dip in a solution of washing soda, and rinse very care- 
fully until all soda is removed. (Washing soda solu- 
tion is made of one pound of washing soda to one gallon 
of water. This can be kept in glass jars and used 
when occasion demands.) Tea stains are easily re- 
moved by brushing the spot with glycerine and then 
washing carefully in warm water to remove the grease. 
Rubbing the spot with the bowl of a spoon is a good 
way to put on the glycerine. 

Fruit stains are also common. An easy way to 
remove them is to stretch the fabric, if it is white, over 
a bowl and pour boiling water from a height, through 
the spot. On white wool or silk, lukewarm water is 
sometimes all that is necessary ; or lukewarm water 
and a little borax. If the fruit stains are on colored 
garments, they are difficult to remove on account of 
removing the color also. If the article is of much 
value, consult a professional dyer if possible. It is 
wise to experiment on the material on another part of 
the garment, as the inside of a hem or facing. Make a 
similar spot and try to remove with different methods. 
Often one can discover a way, through experimenting. 

Rust stains often appear on table linen or white 
clothing. To remove, wet the spot and apply a few 
drops of oxalic acid or salts of lemon or cream of tartar 



REPAIRING LINEN 187 

solution, and wash thoroughly. On colored or wool 
goods of good quality, one must decide whether one 
prefers the stain or the color removed. Water and 
lemon juice will generally remove the spot, but may 
take the color too. Care is necessary for colors. 

Grass stains are also common. If the stains are 
fresh, cold water will usually remove them. When 
on white goods or material which cannot be washed, 
alcohol may be used. When color will stand it, dyed 
fabrics which are grass-stained can be washed with 
water and a little ammonia, followed by warm soap 
solution and careful rinsing. 

Here is a garment which has both ink and blood 
stains on it. Majorie must have cut her finger. Blood 
stains when fresh are easily removed with lukewarm, 
not hot water, and a little ammonia. When on colored 
silk, wash carefully with lukewarm water only. The 
ink stains are more difficult, because the composition 
of inks varies. Wash at once in cold water ; this often 
removes some spots. Sour milk or several rinsings in 
sweet milk may cause the spot to disappear. Then 
wash in warm water and soap to remove the grease. 
If this does not remove it, try a paste made of starch, 
salt, and lemon juice except for colors. If this will 
not, try Javelle water. This can be obtained at a 
drug store. Wash the spot in the Javelle water, but 
rinse very quickly and carefully. Repeat until the 
spot disappears. These directions are for white ma- 
terials only. 



1 88 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

How many would like to try to remove some spots 
at home, before next lesson ? You may report your 
successes or failures, and we shall try to learn the 
reasons for them. Next lesson we shall learn to wash 
and iron this table linen. It will be well to keep it at 
school until next lesson. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. How many spots have you been able to remove? Tell of 
your successes or failures. 

2. See if mother or grandmother has any better recipes than 
you have learned for spots. 

Lesson 8 

learning to wash and iron table linen or bed linen 

We have studied many things about cleanliness, and we all 
know how much cleanliness of clothing and household linen adds 
to our comfort. We have learned that sometimes we can wear our 
underclothes without ironing and that towels can be washed and 
dried and will smell sweet and clean even if not ironed. Table 
linen, though, must be washed and boiled and ironed to look well. 
Our lesson to-day is about how to do this. 

The linen, as well as the cotton, are, as you know, 
vegetable fibers. They are strong and able to resist 
heat and the friction from rubbing. They have re- 
sistance for chemicals also. So cotton and linen may 
be boiled, starched, and ironed with hot irons because 
the fibers are strong. They may also be treated with 
acids of a dilute nature when necessary to remove spots, 



REPAIRING LINEN 



189 



as we have learned. For the usual grease spots on the 
family tablecloths, soak the cloth in soda water to 
remove grease (one cup of soda — the dissolved solu- 
tion — to a pail of water, see page 186). 

The processes for washing and ironing. If the 
stains have been removed from the table linen, it can 
then be soaked. Soak- 
ing helps to loosen the 
dirt when soap is added 
before the soaking. It 
is then unnecessary to 
rub them as much, and 
so materials are saved 
from wear. These are 
the processes for washing 





Fig. 1 10. — Mrs. Stark washing out of doors on a warm day. This is the old 
way. She has just bought a washing machine. 

and ironing : soaking, washing, rinsing, boiling, rinsing, 
bluing, starching, hanging, drying, sprinkling, pulling, 
folding, ironing. 



190 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

i. Soaking. Soak the table or bed linens about ij hours in 
cold or lukewarm water. Soap is really not necessary as the linen 
is not very dirty. All stains should have been previously removed. 

2. Washing. Wash with soap on both sides, rubbing on clothes 
board or in washing machine. Use hot water. 

3. Rinsing. Rinse and soap again to be placed in the boiler. 
The dirt is carried away by this rinsing. 

4. Boiling. Put the soaped articles in clear cold water. Boil 
briskly for five minutes. Add enough soap to keep a suds while 
boiling ; save small pieces for this purpose. Stir clothes and press 
with a stick. Remove from boiler, after boiling actively for five 
minutes. Put in clean hot water, then in cold. Rinse once or 
twice again thoroughly before bluing. 

5. Bluing. Make the blue water from some good blue. Do not 
make it too deep. Test on a small doily. Stir the blue before 
each article is dipped, so it may not appear streaked on the clothes. 
If articles are very yellow it may be necessary to let them stand in 
the blue for a little while. If not yellow, dip two or three times. 

The next process is starching ; but it is not as a rule necessary 
to starch napkins, tablecloths, or bed linens. 

6. Hanging. Hang very straight after stretching. Do not 
pin at corners. Hang -J of the napkin or tablecloth over the line. 

7. Sprinkling. Table linen must be sprinkled evenly. Some- 
times it can be taken from the line when half dry, and the process 
of sprinkling omitted. 

8. Ironing. Linen should be ironed damp and until dry. This 
makes the pattern stand out and gives a shine and gloss to the 
linen. This takes the place of starch. 

9. Folding. Iron napkins partly dry on wrong side; then turn 
to right side, and iron dry. Fold edges evenly. In the lengthwise 
fold do not fold quite to end, as in the final fold the napkin, hand- 
kerchief, tablecloth, or sheets will appear uneven at the edges. 
Fold the tablecloth, or napkins with selvedges together. Table- 
cloths may be folded with three, or four, long creases. 



REPAIRING LINEN 191 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Try to wash and iron the napkins for mother. 

2. Try to wash and iron some towels or pillowcases. Is the 
process different ? , 

3. Why is it unnecessary to iron some clothes if one is very 
busy. Can you give a good reason why it is hygienic not to iron 
them. 

Lesson 9 

the story of the manufacture of linen yarn into cloth 

To-day we are going to study again about our linen table- 
cloths and napkins, and learn how the flax fiber is made into cloth 
after it has been cleaned at the scutching mill. 

Combing and spinning flax. Uncle John divided 
his story in two parts, and told the Pleasant Valley 
Girls' League about the manufacture of flax as well as 
about its growth. The. scutched flax is delivered to 
the manufacturer. He must first spin the flax into 
yarn before it can be woven into cloth. The flax 
fibers measure from 20 to 35 inches in length. How 
are they to be made into one continuous piece for spin- 
ning ? The pictures (Figs. 112 and 113) will give a very 
good idea. Long ago grandmother or great-grandmother 
spun the yarn for the linen sheets on the flax wheel. 
Marjorie's grandmother sent her old flax wheel to school 
for the girls to see. The flax is here on the distaff. 
If you haven't a wheel at your school, look at the 
picture (Fig. in). The woman is holding the flax 
fibers which come from the distaff ; and, as her foot 



192 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



turns the wheel and the flax in her fingers is fed to the 
spindle, it is twisted. Spinning of flax is a very old 
invention. It was once done with just a spindle like the 
woman has in the picture on page 71 (Fig. 44). This 
is the secret of how flax spinning is done to-day. The 
flax is opened at the mill and graded according to color 

and quality. It is 
then combed. This 
process is called hack- 
ling (Fig. 112). It is 
sometimes done by 
hand, and the worker 
draws the flax over 
the iron teeth of a 
comb. The straight- 
ened fibers are left 
and are called line ; 
and the combed-out 
fibers are called tow. 
This first combing 
process is sometimes 
called roughing in- 
stead of hackling. The line is then combed again in 
a big machine which removes any loose tow. Tow is 
often put in a carding machine and made into yarn 
for coarser purposes ; but the long straight line is used 
for the better materials. The line, after it is hackled, 
is placed on a spread board ; and the process is called 
spreading. You can see in the picture (Fig. 113) that 




Fig. hi. — The flax wheel. 



REPAIRING LINEN 



193 



the bundles of flax yarn are spread and overlapped as 
they enter the machine. Now you know how the yarn 
begins to be made of continuous length. The flax 
comes from this machine in a rope and is something 
like the cotton rope or roving as it leaves the carding 
machine ; but flax is brown and stiff, not so soft as 




Fig. 112. 



Courtesy of York St. Mills, Belfast. 
Flax hackling done by machine. 



cotton. Can you find in the picture (Fig. 113) the cans 
ready to receive the flax rovings as they come from the 
spreading machine ? They are at the back of the 
machine. The rovings are then ready to be wound on 
spools and to be twisted to make them strong. This 
is done in the same way as the cotton. The spools 
are put in at the top of the machine ; they hold the 



i 9 4 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

rovings. The rovings pass over rollers which draw 
out and twist and wind the yarn on the spools below. 
This is called spinning. (Fig. 46 shows the cotton 
spinning machines.) Flax spinning is somewhat like 
this. Perhaps some day you may be able to visit a 
flax mill and see the spinning frames, as the machines 
















Courtesy of York St. Mills, Belfast. 
Fig. 113. — Spreading flax to make it a continuous line. 

are called, at work. Uncle John says that yarns are 
made of coarse or of very fine grade, according to the 
fineness of cloth desired. Linen thread is made by 
twisting together two or three of the linen yarns. Look 
at the linen thread and see if you can discover two or 
three. 

Weaving linen. After the threads of flax have been 
spun, they are wound on spools ; and the spools are 



REPAIRING LINEN 195 

put in the big spool holder or skarn in order to prepare 
the roll of warp threads for the loom. Do you remem- 
ber how the cotton warp was prepared and how the 
weaving was done ? Uncle John says that in Scotland 
to-day much of the very fine linen is woven by hand ; 
but we know that linen weaving by machinery has 
been perfected there and that very beautiful materials 
are produced on the modern looms with the Jacquard 
harness as it is called, to produce the wonderful designs. 
Fine table damask is as beautiful as fine silk. The 
French, perhaps, make the most beautiful designs for 
table linen, and the Scotch and Irish come next. (See 
page 124 for Jacquard loom.) 

Bleaching linen cloth. Uncle John says there are 
many things to be done to the linen cloth after it is 
woven. If we were to go to Ireland, we might ride for 
miles and see the woven linen cloth spread on the grass 
in great lengths. This is called crofting or grass bleach- 
ing. Do you remember how we said grandmother 
used to bleach her linen ? Did she use a chemical ? 
What did the sour milk which she used do to her linen ? 
What did the oxygen do ? Chemicals are sometimes 
used to-day in the early stages before the linen is spread 
on the grass. Uncle John says that from 20-25 P er cent, 
or about J, of the weight of the linen is lost in bleaching. 
Linen is sometimes bleached in the thread, but more 
often after it is woven. 

Finishing linen cloth for shipping. After linen cloth 
has been bleached, Uncle John says it is ready to be 



196 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

finished for shipping to the merchants. It is washed 
by passing the cloth through a machine called a rub- 
board. Then it is dried and passed through a beetling 
machine. This makes the fibers stand out. Then 
it is pressed between rollers to give it a smooth surface. 
Cotton is sometimes finished by means of these processes 
to look like linen and be sold for linen. When this cotton 
material is washed, the finishing wears off and it does 
not look like linen. Is such material cheaper or more 
expensive ? Is it honest to sell cotton for linen, and 
to cheat the buyer ? It is all right if the goods are 
labeled. Next lesson we shall talk about the buying 
of household linens. One must know many things in 
order to purchase wisely. Do you see how a knowledge 
of how things are made will help you, too ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Write a story of two hundred words telling how flax is made 
into cloth. 

2. Have an exhibit of articles brought from home, showing 
different patterns of linen cloth. 

3. Perhaps there may be a cord factory near for you to visit. 
Tow is sometimes used in making twine. Study how cord is made. 

Lesson 10 

a talk about buying linens 

Have you ever gone shopping with mother ? There are some 
important things to remember when buying table linen or other 
household materials. What are they ? 



REPAIRING LINEN 197 

Marjorie goes with her mother once a year to buy 
household linens. This is usually in January, when 
the big shop in town has a sale. Last January, 
when Marjorie's mother was ill, they had to order by 
mail. The catalogue from the shop described fully, 
and Mrs. Allen knew exactly what to ask for ; so they 
managed without going to town. This can be done 
if one knows how and if the store is a reliable one. 
These are some of the things Mrs. Allen is teaching 
Marjorie. Some day she will wish to buy for her own 
home ; or, if her mother is ill again, she can go alone. 
It is always more satisfactory to see what one is 
buying. 

Here are some of the points to be noticed in buying : 
1. The first important thing to remember is to buy 
only what one needs. Know the shops one patronizes, 
if possible, and go or send to only reliable firms. The 
reliable places are the cheapest in the end. One learns, 
too, that some things are better at one shop and some 
at another. Reliable stores often have sales, but as 
a rule bargains are not cheap. Remember nothing is 
ever given away. 

2. It is wise and cheaper to purchase some new 
household linen once each year than to wait and have 
it all wear out at once. 

3. Cost is a good guide. Linen is expensive. If 
too cheap, beware. 

4. Linen is sometimes cheapened or adulterated 
with cotton. If the store keeper sells it for union, it 



198 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

is honest ; if he calls it linen, and you pay linen price, 
it is dishonest. Ravel and untwist the ends of the 
warp and filling thread. Cotton will be fuzzy, linen 
should be long and lustrous. Round threads of linen 
are best. The linen threads appear pointed at the ends 
when separated. The all linens made from the tow 
(you have learned what that is) are cheaper than those 
made from the line. Why ? They will not last quite 
so well. 

Wet the linen. Water spreads more rapidly on 
linen than on cotton. An old-fashioned test was to 
moisten with the finger. If you have a sample of 
linen at home for testing, use a drop of olive oil. The 
oil makes the linen fibers more translucent than the 
cotton. Why ? 

5. Another way to know. Linen feels colder than 
cotton ; also it feels heavier when crushed in the hand. 

6. Notice the finish. Is it full of starch which 
can be picked off ? If so, after the washing you will 
have a loosely woven material without starch. It is 
better to buy a softer linen than one filled stiff with 
starch which will crack. 

7. Damask by the yard is slightly cheaper than 
by the cloth. One dollar a yard is a fair price. Table 
cloths from 2J to 3 yards are a good size for a family of 
six. A cloth wears about as long as iior 2 dozen nap- 
kins. The price of one dozen napkins about equals 
the cost of a cloth. Napkins come in three sizes : 
I, 17-22 inches; |, 23-27 inches; J, 29-31 inches. 



REPAIRING LINEN 199 

8. Scotch, French, and Irish linens are the best 
for quality, beauty, and variety of patterns. German 
damask is good ; but German patterns are perhaps the 
least attractive. Unbleached linen will wear much 
longer, is less expensive, and is bought by many house- 
wives and bleached as used. 

9. For family towels huckaback is the most ser- 
viceable, although damask is used a great deal. Linen 
towels vary in price from $3.00 a dozen up, according 
to size and quality. Dish towels of linen crash are 
very serviceable. 

10. The microscope is the only sure test for distin- 
guishing cotton and linen fibers. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

i. Ask mother if she knows any other methods of judging good 
linen. 

2. When you go to town, price some tablecloths and napkins. 
How much will a good cloth and napkins cost ? 

REVIEW PROBLEMS 

I. Plan a systematic way of looking over your clothing and 
keeping it in repair. 

11. How do you store your winter clothing for protection during 
summer ? Your summer clothes during winter ? 

III. How does your knowledge of buying linens help you in 
going shopping with mother ? 









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CHAPTER V 

THE PLEASANT VALLEY GIRLS LEARN TO MAKE 
MORE GARMENTS 



Would you like to learn to make some useful gar- 
ments ? Perhaps, then, you can help with the family 
sewing and make some useful garments for your sister 
or mother. Some day you may wish to be a seam- 
stress or a dressmaker and to earn money in that way. 
Barbara Oakes says she expects to do so. Now is 
the time to begin to learn how, and later perhaps you 
may go to a dressmaking school. 

Barbara Oakes and some of the League girls have a 
class which meets once a week for instruction in gym- 
nastics and fancy dancing. In the spring or early 
summer they expect to give a dance outdoors. A 
pageant will be prepared by some of the members of 
the Mothers' Club ; and the dance is part of that 
pageant. 

The pageant will picture the history of Pleasant 
Valley. The Mothers' Club is planning to have all the 
people who will, take part. Have you ever seen a 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 201 

pageant ? It is a pleasant way to learn history and to 
celebrate an interesting local event. Pageants have 
been held in many parts of the eastern and western 
states ; and in England there have been many pageants. 
Perhaps you can plan a pageant for your town. While 
the girls are practicing their dancing and gymnastics, 
bloomers will be very useful, and the girls have decided 
to learn to make them. Would you like to learn how ? 
The bloomers will be useful for school gymnastics, too. 
You can also make a middy blouse and a skirt to wear 
with them, so as to have the whole outfit. 

Lesson i 

the pattern of the bloomers 

Let us study the pattern which your teacher has brought to 
school. You have learned to read patterns. You must also 
calculate how much material to order, and what kind. 

Let us open the pattern and study its parts. Yes, 

the long narrow strips are for the belt ; some are for 
the placket facings. Notice if the dots indicate where 
these are to be placed : on a fold of material or length- 
wise of the cloth. There is one other piece. It is the 
leg ; so two must be cut. Is it possible to cut two at the 
same time ? How, then, should the material be folded ? 
Notice the perforations. They will help us to know 
which part of the pattern is to be placed on the warp 
of the cloth. How wide is the width of the pattern at 
the widest part ? If it is 34 inches, then it will be easy 



202 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



to calculate how many lengths to buy of cloth 36 inches 
wide. Measure the length of the pattern and see if it is 
long enough for you to allow for fullness at the knee so 
that there is some to blouse over. If not, how will you 
add to the pattern ? This extra length must be 
allowed in ordering the material. Can 
you tell how much cloth to order ? See 
if you can calculate. 

What kind of material will you use ? 
Some of the Pleasant Valley girls wish 
wool material because it will be warmer 
for winter wear. Dark blue or black 
serge is very durable, is washable also, 
and will shed the dust. Here are some 
samples. Sateen is also a durable cotton 
material, but it is not so warm. It is 
easier for girls to handle in making than 
wool. Bloomers can also be made from 
gingham, percale, galatea, or other cotton 
Fig. 114. — The cloth. Which will you choose ? Shall we 
mS3T wn.«p d not write for some samples of these dif- 

middy blouse. Jr 

ferent materials ? The Pleasant Valley 
girls wrote and received them in a few days. Perhaps 
you too are learning how to order by mail when you 
are too far away from town to go shopping. Try to 
make all the calculations to-day and to learn all about 
the pattern. Pin the pieces of the pattern together ; 
also try to hold them up to your figure or the girl 
next to you. It helps one to learn where the parts lie 




MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 203 

on the body and to locate where the seams will fall. 
The Pleasant Valley girls worked in pairs and helped 
each other with the cutting, fitting, and planning. 
This is a good way when each girl does her part. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Open the pattern for the bloomers. Notice the parts, also 
the perforations and directions. 

2. Calculate how much cloth will be necessary for a pair of 
bloomers for yourself. 

3. Bring samples of materials suitable for bloomers. 

Lesson 2 

the story of where wool is grown 

While you are waiting for the samples of wool serges, galatea, 
and sateen, let us study about wool. Wool is the most important 
textile fiber. All girls should know about it, whether you will use 
wool or cotton for your bloomers. 

In the picture (Fig. 115) you will see a very peaceful 
scene. The sheep are grazing and storing up food and 
energy to be converted into food for us to eat and cloth- 
ing for us to wear. Mr. Allen has over a hundred sheep 
on his farm. How grateful we should be to the patient 
sheep. This animal fiber called wool is a variety of 
hair, and varies in fineness. The coarser varieties 
are called hair. Hair is obtained from the angora goat, 
the camel, and alpaca. Perhaps your teacher has a 
microscope. Look at the fibers under the glass. You 
can see how hair differs from wool. There are tiny 



204 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



serrations on the wool surface which look like the scales 
of a pine cone, lapping one over the other. This is a 
wonderful thing to see ; for it is on account of these 
tiny serrations which close up when in hot water that 
one must be so careful about laundering woolens. 



; :;' 










Fig. 



Rosa Bonheur. 
These peaceful looking sheep provide our wool clothing. 



Wool looks wavy in length. It is fine and has a luster ; 
while hair has a smooth surface and lies straight. 

Have you ever seen sheep sheared of their wool ? 
Perhaps it is done on your farm. Sheep are usually 
sheared only once a year, in April or May. If there 
are only a few sheep, it is easy to use the hand shears 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



205 




Fig. 116. — Wool fibers magnified. 



like those in the picture 

(Fig. 117); but where there 

are many sheep, the ma- 
chine clippers must be 

used. These clipping ma- 
chines can be run by hand 

or other power. They 

shear close and save wool. 

Notice the machine which 

the man in the picture 

(Fig. 118) is using; it is 

just like the one Mr. Allen 

uses. Frank or John sometimes helps. The coating 

of wool from one sheep is called a fleece. On the large 
sheep ranches of the West the fleeces are tied 
into bundles, and these bundles are put in 
sacks holding about 400 pounds to be shipped 
to certain wool-purchasing centers where the 
buyers examine the wool and buy in quantities. 
What do you know about the sheep indus- 
try ? Our sheep industry is very important. 
The western states, Montana, Idaho, Wyom- 
ing, and Oregon, support about 38 million 
sheep. That is a large family to shear and 
feed. 

Other countries grow sheep for clothing 
wools, too. Australia, England, South Africa, 

South America, Spain, and Germany all give much 

attention to sheep raising. 




Fig. 117. — 
The hand 
shears. 



206 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



This industry is very old. We read in the Bible 
that wool was used long ago and that King David of 
Israel wrote psalms as he tended his sheep on the hill— 




J,. 1 



>.«& 



Courtesy of Chicago Flexible Shaft Co. 
Fig. 118. — Sheep shearing by machinery. 

side. Abel, the brother of Cain, was a keeper of sheep. 
Can you find these stories in the Bible ? Writers of 
many ages tell about wool — Pliny, Homer, and Virgil. 
Alexander too, when he journeyed to India in early 
days, saw beautiful woolen shawls being made. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 207 

Some sheep give a better quality of wool than others. 
The Merino wool is the very finest. The camel 
furnishes a beautiful soft fiber. Then, there is the 
angora goat of Asia Minor, which provides us with 
mohair. This is a lovely soft fiber resembling silk. 
Can you find this country on your map ? Look for 
Peru and for Chili. The sheep there furnish the alpaca 
and llama wools. 

Some wool fibers are long, and some are quite short. 
The length of fiber, or staple as it is called, varies. An 
average length is 7 or 8 inches. How does this compare 
with the silk or linen fiber ? Is it as long as cotton ? 
The fibers also vary in strength and luster, fineness, 
softness, and elasticity. What do these words mean ? 
Can you find them in your dictionary ? The tiny 
serrations on the wool fiber cannot be seen with the 
naked eye. They are, however, very important ; for 
it is this characteristic of wool which makes it felt, and, 
because these tiny serrations interlock, it is possible 
to make the fine texture of broadcloth and other fine 
wool materials. We shall study how later. Do you 
think we wish the tiny serrations to interlock when we 
wash woolen articles ? If they do, what will happen to 
the garment ? Do you know how this can be pre- 
vented ? If you have sheep on your farm or near, will 
you bring some of the wool to school. It is dirty. 
Perhaps you can wash it at school, and see how soft 
and fine and lustrous it is. You may also be able 
to dye some. The center of the wool fiber is rather 



208 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

porous, and this enables the fiber to take up dye 
easily. 

The wool from some sheep farms varies on account 
of the differences in climate, soil, and breed of sheep. 
The sheep of southern England produce short and fine 
wool ; while in the north, where it is colder, the wool is 
stronger and coarser. Wools from Saxony and Silesia 
are very fine. The English and Australian wools are of 
several qualities. The long wools come from Lincoln 
and Leicestershire, and the shorter from Suffolk and 
Shropshire. Can you find these places on your map of 
England ? The long coarse wools are used for carpets 
and for knitting, because they are so strong. The short 
wools used for clothing are about 3 to 4 inches in length. 
The long wools, about 10 inches in length, are called 
combing wools and are used for materials which are 
loosely woven like serges, homespuns, and others. 

Next lesson we shall study our samples of woolen 
materials. Bring all the scraps of different kinds which 
you can contribute. Put them in the surprise box. 
We shall learn the names of the most common ones. 
Will you make a sample book for these too ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Find on the map the principal countries producing wool. 

2. If your teacher has a microscope, compare wool and hair. 
How do they differ P 

3. Why do woolen garments shrink when washed in hot water ? 

4. Why is wool the most important fiber of commerce ? 

5. Tell some of the uses of long coarse wools ; of the finer wools. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 209 

Lesson 3 

some of the most common materials made from wool 

There are many materials made from wool. Let us learn to-day 
about those which are used most commonly. 

Perhaps some one in the class will sort the pieces in the 
surprise box. Mollie Stark sorted those at Pleasant 
Valley School. Do not sort according to color, but place 
them in three piles. We have the thick, close materials, 
which are heavy and firm. Then we have the thin, sheer 
ones. In the third pile, place the medium weight ones 
which look strong and are wiry but not so closely woven 
and firm as those in the first pile. Shall we learn about 
some of each kind ? 

Let us see what we have in the third pile of wiry, 
more loosely woven materials. First we have the serges. 
Here are several pieces. Some are fine with the twilled 
weave, and others are twilled but the weave is coarser. 
They are very serviceable and are suitable for bloomers, 
or for dress fabrics. Here is a sample of a plaid serge. 
Marjorie Allen had such a dress last winter. It is pos- 
sible to buy plain colors too. Serges are woven quite 
wide, from 42 to 54 inches, and cost from 75 cents to 
#3 per yard. Cheviots are very similar to serges in 
price and width, but are somewhat heavier in appear- 
ance. The surface of some is rather rougher than serge, 
although there are smooth cheviots too. Have some 
samples of serges been sent from the store ? You 



210 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

must examine these, too, to see if you will select one for 
your bloomers. 

This coarse one in the same pile is a homespun, and 
this is a tweed. They are both rough, wiry, loosely 
woven, and made of rather coarse yarn. They are 
rather open in texture and were both in olden times spun 
and woven by hand, but are now made by machinery. 
Tweed gets its name from a place in Scotland. 
These materials are very serviceable, especially for 
rough wear for suitings, coats, or dress goods. The 
color or pattern is not always clearly defined, because 
the yarn of which it is woven is mixed in color. Home- 
spuns are somewhat cheaper than tweeds. They cost 
from $1 to $3 per yard, and are woven from 42 to 50 inches 
wide. Tweeds are a little wider, 52 to 54 inches, and 
cost from $2 to #4 per yard. 

There are four samples in this pile, not quite so heavy. 
They are cashmere, c halite, albatross, and henrietta. 
Have you ever heard these names before ? They are 
all common wool materials. They are often used for 
girls' school dresses, for wrappers, and for baby wear. 
They are all softer than serges. Cashmere and hen- 
rietta resemble each other. They both have a twilled 
weave. Henrietta was originally woven with a silk 
warp. One can buy silk warp henrietta to-day. 
Grandmother Stark has one. Is there a sample in your 
box ? Cashmere is also soft, and the finer qualities 
are made from hair of the cashmere goat. Cashmere 
is woven 36 to 45 inches in width and can be bought 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 211 

for from 75 cents to #1.25 per yard. Henrietta is about 
the same width and price, except when it has silk warp. 
Then it is more expensive. 

Challie and albatross are about the same weight. I 
am sure you have all had a pretty challie dress sometime. 
Challies are figured ; sometimes the pattern is woven 
in and sometimes printed. It is made sometimes of a 
mixture of cotton and wool, or silk and wool ; but now 
challies can be bought in all cotton too as well as in all 
wool. They come about 30 inches wide and cost from 
50 to 75 cents per yard. 

Albatross is also soft and a fancy weave. It too is 
used for dress goods and costs about the same as challie, 
50 cents to $1 per yard. It is woven from 38 to 45 
inches in width. 

Let us now examine some of the heavy ones in the 
first pile. Yes, every one knows the name of the heavy 
fine piece. It is broadcloth and is used for coats and 
dress goods. There are also some lighter weights of 
broadcloth with a smooth satiny finish. They are 
called lady s cloth. A very good broadcloth is expen- 
sive, and costs about #5 per yard. One can buy it for 
#1.50, but as a rule it is not very satisfactory under $2 
per yard. Broadcloth is closely woven, smooth, and soft 
in finish. It is from 50 to 58 inches in width. Has 
any one at your house a dress or coat made from this ? 
Examine it and ask how durable it has been. Father's 
winter overcoat was perhaps made of melton, or covert 
cloth. Mr. Allen had such a coat last year. Examine 



212 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

the samples. They are both heavy. Melton is about 
the same width as broadcloth, 52 inches, and costs also 
from $2 to $4 per yard for a good quality. It is used 
for suits, overcoats, and heavy garments. This is a 
standard material and is usually dark blue or black. 
Uniforms are often made from it. 

Covert cloth is, also, used for overcoats and suits. 
It is heavy, but differs from the smooth surface of 
broadcloth. It is a heavy twilled cloth. 

Felt and flannel are both in this heavy pile, although 
there are some lightweight flannels. Felt is not woven, 
but is compressed, so that the wool fibers are matted 
together in a flat mass. It is made 24 to 50 inches in 
width and costs from 80 cents to #1.50 per yard. I 
am sure you all know its use. School pennants are made 
from it, and so are some table covers. Flannel is woven. 
It is finished with a soft surface which is slightly napped. 
What does that mean ? It is a rather loosely woven 
fabric, and is used for many purposes. Can you tell 
some ? Yes, petticoats, baby garments, waists, dressing 
sacques, shirts for men. It costs from 50 cents to $1 
per yard. Sometimes it is made of a combination of 
cotton and wool, instead of all wool. It varies in width 
from 27 to 36 inches. 

Let us examine some of the thin samples. Here is 
one which it is almost possible to see through. It is 
called voile and is thin and gauzy, like veiling. This 
sample near is called nuns veiling. It, also, has an 
open mesh weave, and is a common wool material. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 213 

They are both used for dress goods, and are made in 
solid colors. There are also some printed voiles, but 
they are usually made of cotton. Wool voile costs 
from #1.25 to $2 per yard and is woven from 42 to 45 
inches wide ; while nun's veiling is narrower, 36 inches 
wide, and slightly less expensive, from 75 cents to $1 
per yard. 

Here are some samples called etamine and grenadine. 
They are similar to the voiles, of open mesh weave, and 
are used principally for dress goods. 

Bunting is another open mesh weave. We certainly 
all know its use. Look at the flag flying on your school- 
house. Bunting is about 24 inches in width and costs 
about 35 cents per yard. It is sometimes made from 
mohair. 

Here are three samples : one called brilliantine ; and 
another, alpaca ; the third, mohair. The brilliantine 
and mohair do not feel as soft as the wool serges or 
cashmeres, but rather more wiry. They are made from 
hair of the Angora goat. , They are serviceable, for 
they both shed dust and wear well. They are used for 
dresses or dust coats. The Alpaca is made from the 
hair of the llama, which is bright, strong, and elastic. 
All of these materials are bright and glossy. Here are 
their prices and woven widths : 

Alpaca . . . 36-45 inches 75 cents-$i per yard 
Brilliantine . . 54 inches 75 cents-$2 per yard 

Mohair . . . 40-54 inches 50 cents-$2 per yard 



2i 4 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

There are still some common wool materials we 
have not mentioned. Yes, blankets. They are made 
of cotton as well as of wool, or of a mixture of the 
two. They cost from $y to #30 per pair if all wool. 
The combination of cotton and wool can be had for 
less. 

Carpets are also made from wool yarn. They are 
woven so that the yarn stands up in loops, and then 
these loops are cut as in velvet carpet. In Brussels 
and ingrain carpets the loops are not cut. 

Suppose you plan to arrange your sample books 
with three columns of materials made from wool. You 
may have four or five columns if you prefer to put the 
mohairs, alpacas, and brilliantines by themselves, and 
the blankets and carpets in a separate column. That 
is the way the Pleasant Valley girls arranged theirs. 
The first will be the heavy materials ; then the medium 
weight, and then the thin ones. It is easy to sort and 
label them now that you know their names, uses, and 
widths. Before very long we shall learn the story of 
how the wool fiber is made into so many different 
kinds of cloth. It is treated by different processes in 
manufacture in order to get a smooth close finish or a 
loose wiry finish. We shall learn how. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Tell the difference between felt and flannel. 

2. Name some heavy wool materials ; some of lighter weight. 
Tell where you have seen them used. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 215, 

3. Look up the story of how carpets are made. Perhaps you 
would like to study about rugs, too. 

4. How do serges and broadcloths differ in appearance ? 

5. Plan to collect materials for the five columns of the chart. 
Mount with prices and widths. 



Lesson 4 

making a pair of bloomers 
Let us begin to make the bloomers to-day. 

First, we shall lay the pattern. Some girls have 
probably chosen serge for their bloomers, and some 
have ordered galatea or sateen. The black or the blue 
are serviceable. Suppose you cut them out to-day. 
You have studied the pattern which your teacher had. 
Perhaps some girls will find it necessary to add in 
length or width. Your teacher ordered the pattern 
by size, according to age. 14-year size was chosen. 
Perhaps you must make yours smaller or larger. One 
pattern can be adapted to the whole class. This you 
allowed for, in ordering the amount of cloth. Let us 
place the pattern carefully. Be sure that the perfora- 
tions which indicate lengthwise of the material are 
placed on the warp. Can you cut out both legs at 
the same time ? Can you tell where to place the two 
strips for the bands, and for the placket facings ? Which 
way of the material will the length of band and facings 
be cut ? Pin carefully in place and cut with an even 
motion. It will perhaps be safer to mark the notches 



2l6 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



with a pencil or with a white thread. Girls some- 
times forget — cut the notches too large and spoil the 
cloth. 

Then we shall learn to make a flat felled seam. 
The two legs are to be sewed up on the right side. Be 
very careful not to make both legs for the same leg. 
That is the mistake Marjorie Allen made. Baste the 
seam \ inch wide. Then stitch close to the basting. 





1 

J ; 





Fig. 119. — The flat fell, showing the three steps in making: //, the seam 
stitched; B, one edge cut; C, the turning of the other edge flat, to be basted 
and stitched. 

Cut off one edge of this seam to within J inch of the 
stitching, and lay the other edge of seam flat on the cloth 
for the fell. Turn in the raw edge, baste, and stitch flat. 
This must be done very carefully, for it is very easy to 
make a fell which is wrinkled and full instead of flat 
(see Fig. 119). 

Join the two legs together at the center with the 
same flat fell. Be sure, to have the two leg seams 
come together. This is important. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 217 

The placket openings lie over the hip. A single 
strip may be used to bind this opening, or a regular 
placket may be made according to your pattern. If a 
strip is used, cut it lengthwise of the cloth and one inch 
longer than twice the length of placket opening. If 
cut 2\ inches wide, the finished facing will be one inch 
in width. Place the right side of the strip to the right 
side of the bloomers. Baste \ inch seams, holding 
strip all around the placket opening ; and then stitch. 
Turn to the wrong side, turn in \ inch and baste, stitch 
again. Care must be taken at the bottom of the 
placket opening to make the seam of sufficient width 
so that it will not pull out. 

At the bottom of each leg make a hem, one inch 
wide finished. Stitch, leaving one inch open. This is 
the opening for the elastic band. Run in the elastic 
before completing the hem by hand. 

Now we are ready for the bands. There is one for 
the front and one for the back. If your pattern allows 
for fullness, gather to fit \ of your waist measure. It 
will be necessary to measure your bands and to allow 
the two inches for lapping on the back band. The 
front band is usually shorter than the back. Fasten 
the bloomers so that they lap towards the front. 

To put on the band, work in the same way as in 
putting on the apron or petticoat band, except the 
band is turned to the right side for tailor finish on a 
garment with flat fells. Begin by placing the right 
side of the band to the inside of the front, and also 



218 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

back of the bloomer portions. Baste, stitch, turn to 
the right side. Snaps may be used, or buttons and 
buttonholes, for closing. Buttonholes can also be placed 
at the center front and at the back of the bands, if the 
bloomers are to be fastened to a waist. How shall 
the buttonholes be placed in cutting for fastening in 
this way ? Do you think it is very difficult to make 
the bloomers ? The girls who use serge can make the 
placket facings and bands of silk or sateen or some 
lining material which will be thinner. Only the most 
experienced Pleasant Valley girls used the serge — 
those who had sewed at home. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. What are the important things to remember in cutting out 
the bloomers ? 

2. How does the band of the bloomers differ from that put on 
the petticoat ? 

Lesson 5 

the story of how wool is made into cloth 

The Pleasant Valley boys and girls learned how wool is made into 
cloth after it has been sheared from the sheep. Would you like to 
know ? 

First, the wool is sorted. Wool sometimes travels 
a long distance before it is delivered to the manu- 
facturer. Perhaps the wool in your skirt was grown in 
England or in Australia, and was shipped in great sacks 
to New York, and then to the manufacturer. As it is 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



219 



sheared from the sheep, it is dirty and full of burrs, 
grease, and perspiration. This grease helps to pre- 
serve the wool until the manufacturer is ready to use 
it ; and, although he buys the wool by weight and pays 




Courtesy of M. J. Whittall. 



Fig. 120. — Wool sorting. 



for dirt and grease, he prefers to do so because of the 
preserving qualities of the grease. Even f of the 
weight may be dirt and grease. The first thing the 
manufacturer does is to sort the wool to put the good 
grades together, and to separate them from the poor 
ones. You remember the fleece is the whole coat of 



220 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



the sheep. Some parts of this coat are better wool 
than others ; especially the part from the head and 
upper part of the back and sides. About seven dif- 
ferent grades are separated for different purposes. 











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Courtesy of M. J. Whittall. 



Fig. I2i. — Wool washing or scouring. 



The second process is washing or scouring. Wool 
cannot be carded and spun until the dirt and grease 
are removed ; so the next thing the manufacturer does 
is to remove the grease, or " yolk " as it is called, by 
washing. This must be done very carefully so as not 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 221 

to break or injure the wool. Perhaps you can bring 
some dirty wool from your farm to school and wash 
it. Soft soap is the most harmless. Use a soft water 
at a low temperature (120 F.). Can you tell why it 
must be low ? The washing is done in a series of 
tanks. You can see them in the picture (Fig. 121). 
The wet wool is swished back and forth by means of 
wooden forks which carry the wool forward and beat 
it out. There are rollers for passing the wool from 
one tank to another. Then the wool must be dried. 
This is done in a kind of wringing machine called a 
" hydro extractor." Then it is beaten into a fluffy 
mass. 

Then a strange thing happens. Oil in wool is neces- 
sary in order to help in the spinning and to keep it soft 
and elastic, so the manufacturer must return some oil 
to the wool, after having washed it all out. Olive oil 
is used. 

If there is any dirt or any burrs left in the wool, they 
must be removed. A machine called a burr picker is 
used to beat out the dirt. 

Then the wool is blended. Do you know that the 
wool skirt which you are wearing may not be made of 
all new wool ? Wool can be used over and over again. 
Old wool rags are pulled apart and mixed with new 
wool. If this did not happen, the manufacturer would 
have to charge much more than you pay for serge or 
some woolen materials, as he would have to use all 
new wool. That is why some wool materials are so ex- 



222 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

pensive. If only new wool were used, there would not 
be enough raised in the world to clothe everybody. 
The wool manufacturer, therefore, blends, or mixes, 
the wool before it is sent to the carding machine. In 
blending he knows just what color, style, and grade of 
material he wishes to produce, and he grades accord- 
ingly. Cheapness is one of the principal reasons for 
blending. Sometimes cotton or jute are mixed in, if 
the manufacturer wishes to produce a very cheap 
material which is not all wool. 

Would you like to know the names of some of the 
all-wool substitutes which are used in reducing the cost 
of all-wool materials ? Marjorie Allen's grandmother 
told her, and Marjorie told the League girls. Shoddy 
is one ; it is made from old rags, like woolen stockings, 
flannels, soft underwear ; materials which have not 
been felted together. Do you know what felted means ? 
The rags are washed, ground up, and prepared to mix 
with the new wool. Mungo is another queer name 
which is given to woolen rags which have been felted, 
as broadcloth or men's suitings. Flocks is nothing 
but dust or waste from the clipping machines when 
cloth is sheared or clipped in finishing. This is used 
to fill in. So you see nothing is wasted. 

The next process after blending is carding. Do you 
remember how cotton is carded ? Long ago, when 
Marjorie's grandmother was young, wool was carded 
by hand. Look at the picture on page jj and see how 
Grandmother Allen holds the cards. She is preparing 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



223 



rolls of wool for the spinning wheel. The manufac- 
turer must prepare the slivers, or rolls like ropes of wool, 
for the spinning frames as they are called to-day. The 
machine which helps to produce these ropes is called 
the carding machine. It also helps to clean the dirt 









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Courtesy of M. J. Whittall. 

Fig. 122. — Wool carding. Notice the round cylinders. The gauzy web is being 
delivered into the can in front of the carding machine. 

from the wool. The picture (Fig. 122) will show you 
how the wool carder looks. There is a center cylinder 
and around it revolve small cylinders. They are all 
covered with wire teeth which help to pull the wool 
apart and to cleanse it. If you were to stand before 
the machine, you would see a gauzy, filmy sheet of wool 
the width of the long rollers as it leaves the machine. 



224 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

The wide guazy mass is pulled together as it is drawn 
through a hole at the front of the carder and is de- 
livered or wound up in the can, just as we learned the 
cotton was delivered. This wool roving is then wound 
on spools and is ready for spinning. Do you remember 
the story of how cotton is drawn out and twisted and 
wound on spools ? Wool too must be spun and made 
into yarn, before yarn can be woven into cloth. The 
manufacturer makes woolen yarn and also worsted 
yarn. Do you know the difference ? We shall study 
in our next lesson about them. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Ask your grandmother to tell you about sheep raising on 
the farm, when she was a girl. 

2. Tell why the manufacturer must blend old and new wool. 
What are the names of some old rags of wool used for this purpose ? 

3. Tell how carding was done in olden times. How is wool 
carding done to-day ? Why is carding an important process 
in the manufacture of cloth made from wool ? 

Lesson 6 

some facts to remember in purchasing wool clothing 

Why does the manufacturer use woolen yarn in weaving some 
materials and worsted yarn for others ? If one knows this, it 
will be a guide in purchasing wool materials. The Pleasant 
Valley girls know. 

The difference between woolen and worsted yarns. 
Before you can answer the question for this lesson, you 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



225 



must learn the difference between woolen and worsted 
yarns. Worsted yarn is prepared from the sheep giving 
long wool. It is prepared by processes which comb it 
until all the short fibers are removed and only the 
long straight ones are used. This combing prepares 
the long wool fibers for spinning so that they lie parallel. 




Fig. 



Courtesy of M. J. Whittall. 
13. — Wool combing for high grade materials. There is much waste. 



This makes an expensive yarn because so much is 
combed away. This fine combed worsted yarn is 
used for high grade worsted materials, as some cheviots 
or fine tweeds, and for underwear. 

Woolen yarn is not combed to remove the short 
fibers. It is, instead, carded a great deal so that the 
wool fibers are well mixed and the serrations of the tiny 



226 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



fibers arranged so that they will interlock, when put 
in water of high temperature, and the gelatinous 
scales are opened up. Woolen yarn is woven into 
broadcloths and meltons. After the weaving the 
cloth is put into vats where the temperature opens up 

the serrations and the scales 
interlock, and make a close, 
smooth piece of cloth. This 
is called fulling. Isn't this in- 
teresting ? Do you see why the 
manufacturer uses worsted in- 
stead of woolen yarn for making 
underwear ? If worsted yarn 
were used for making broad- 
cloth, there would not be the 
same close finish. The worsted 
yarn is combed and the fibers 
are not in position to interlock 
as in the woolen yarn (Fig. 124). 
Can you answer the question now 
why worsted yarn is used some- 
times and woolen at others ? 
After the yarn has been spun, it is woven into cloth 
just as cotton is prepared and woven. Woolen yarn 
is fuzzy ; cloth made from it is woven loosely and then 
it is put into vats and shrunken or fulled until the 
cloth is compact, as broadcloth. 

Worsted yarn when made into cloth is shrunken 
very little or not at all. It is woven as it will appear. 





Fig. 124. — This shows the dif- 
ference in the slivers of wool 
and worsted yarn. A is the 
woolen yarn, well mixed ; B is 
the worsted yarn, well combed. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 227 

Beautiful homespuns and worsted suitings are the 
result. 

Many fabrics made of wool are of simple weave like 
the plain homespun, but complicated patterns are also 
woven of wool. The yarns are arranged in the loom 




Courtesy of M. J. Whittall. 
Fig. 125. — The spinning of wool into yarn. 

in the same way as the cotton about which we studied. 
Many beautiful patterns are made in woolen materials, 
even the complicated patterns of double cloth weaving 
like the old-fashioned golf capes, made of double cloth, 
which were worn a few years ago. 

So you can see that the manufacturer must know 




228 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

whether he is to adulterate his wool cloth with cotton 
or reduce the cost of production by using mungo, 
shoddy, or flocks. Flocks is put in when the cloth is 
shrunken or fulled in the vats. The short pieces and 
dust, or flocks as it is called, are drawn in as the 
serrations open and the cloth is shrunken. 

This is all useful to know, for it helps one in pur- 
chasing materials. Most of us cannot afford to buy 
cloth made of all new wool, but we should be able to 

tell whether cloth is made of 
cotton and wool mixed, or all 
wool. We will know by price 
f,c; ,26 -Tim , the teasel whether the all wool is new 
which is used to brush the wool or not. No shopkeeper 

nap of the cloth in finishing, i i j 11 1 i 

These small thistles are ar- should Sell a COttOn and WOol 

ranged in rows in the machine fo r all WOol. When We have 

rollers through which the .. 1111 r ^ 

cloth passes. our textiles labeled as roods are 

now labeled, we shall be able to 
tell. What have you learned to-day which will help 
you in purchasing wool materials ? 

Woolen and worsted yarns are used also in the manu- 
facture of carpets, rugs, hosiery, blankets, underwear, 
and also for knitting purposes. Do you know how to 
knit ? Does any one know at your home ? It is a 
useful and pleasant accomplishment. Shawls, afghans, 
caps, and sweaters can all be knitted. Miss James 
taught the Pleasant Valley girls to knit bright scarfs 
which they wore for tobogganing the next winter. 
Some girls made them for sale. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 229 

Points about buying woolen garments. Here are a 
few things to think about which Miss Travers from the 
State College told the Mothers' Club of Pleasant Valley 
to remember in buying wool garments or materials. 

1. Wool mixed with cotton should not be sold for 
all wool. It is a cheaper fabric. It wears fairly well, 
but is not so warm. Pull the fabric apart, untwist 
the fibers to see if cotton is present. 

2. Garments bought ready-made of cotton and wool 
do not keep their shape as well as all wool garments. 

3. Burning a piece of the fabric will help you to 
identify the fiber. Wool burns slowly, chars, and 
gives off an odor of burned feathers. Cotton burns 
quickly with a flame. 

4. A good wool material can always be used over 
again. The inexpensive is not cheap unless you wish 
something which does not look well or wear well but 
is cheap. 

5. Remember that a close twill weave is more durable 
than a basket weave. Think about this in buying ; for 
the weave of material affects the wearing quality. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

i. How is yarn which is to be used for underwear treated in 
manufacture ? Why ? 

2. How does this treatment differ from yarn used in the manu- 
facture of broadcloth ? 

3. What are some of the things your mother thinks about when 
she buys a garment made from wool, in order to get good value 
for her money ? 



2 3 o CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Lesson 7 

the clothing budget 

Have you ever thought how much your clothing costs father 
and mother every year ? Marjorie Allen and Barbara Oakes tried 
to figure the cost one day. Girls must begin to learn how to spend 
wisely, for they will very soon have the responsibility of being 
spenders. If you can make some of your clothing, you will help 
to reduce the cost. Would you like to learn to make a budget as 
well as a simple dress skirt to wear over the bloomers ? Suppose 
we study to-day about the clothing budget. 

Have you. ever tried to calculate how much is spent 
each year for your clothing ? If not, suppose you try. 
Girls who know how to make some articles of clothing 
can have more for the same amount of money. Sup- 
pose you send for the material for your dress skirts. 
It is wise to learn to make a very simple skirt first. 
Choose a simple pattern. Your teacher will help you. 
What material will you use ? Perhaps you would like 
a middy blouse later to wear with the skirt. Can you 
name some suitable cotton materials to use for this 
purpose ? Yes, Indian head, galatea, duck. You 
have studied about all of these and should have them 
in your sample books. Such a dress will be suitable 
for school wear. Talk with your teacher and calculate 
how much cloth you must buy for your skirt and middy. 
While you are waiting for the cloth you have ordered, 
let us study how Marjorie's Cousin Ann, who works at 
Paterson, manages to plan each year for her clothing. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



231 



She has such good plans. Do you know that such a 
plan is called a budget ? 

Would you like to learn to make your clothing 
budget ? Ann earns #10 per week and her room and 
board cost her $6 per week, so she has $4 for other ex- 
penses. She puts aside #1.50 each week for clothing, 
and so has $6 per month or about #75 per year. She 
lives near her work so does not have daily carfare, and 
she goes home at the noon hour for a little rest and for 
lunch. The rest of her 
money she divides in this 
way : Each week she tries 
to save 75 cents or $3 per 
month. The rest she uses 
for church and club ex- 
penses, for gifts, news- 
papers, or occasionally 
she buys a new necktie 
or an extra waist ; but 
usually the $75 supply all her clothing needs. This is 
how she manages. She plans for more than one year, 
usually trying to keep three years in mind. Ann also 
goes to the Girls' Club and has learned to make her 
waists and some simple dresses. 

The following is what she bought the first year. 
Remember she had some clothes to begin with before 
she started to keep her clothing budget. Your budget 
will of course be different from this, but this will show 
how Ann manages with $75. Some things which she 




Fig. 127. 
money. 



Church 
,Club 

Expenses 
Gifts 
Newspapers 
etc. 

>AVE» 



— Cousin Ann's division of her 
How much was for clothing ? 



232 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

needs you may have no use for in your section of the 
country. Try to plan what you would substitute. This 
will at least be a working basis for you, and will give 
you some suggestions for making yours. Marjorie 
Allen and Barbara Oakes have made their clothing 
budgets. They have $60 per year for clothing. What 
do you think they omitted from this list ? The things 
marked * are made at home. Ann's mother helps her ; 
but Ann learned to make clothes at her Sewing Club. 

First Year 

2 union suits (winter) @ #2.00 $4.00 

3 union suits (summer) @ .50 1.50 

1 flannelette nightdress @ 1.00 1.00 

1 flannelette nightdress left over 

2 night dresses @ .80 1.60 

*3 corset covers @ .50 1.50 

2 pairs of corsets @ 2.00 4.00 

6 pairs of stockings @ .25 1.50 

2 pairs of garters @ .25 50 

shoes: 1 high lace @ 3.00 

2 pairs low shoes @ 2.50 8.00 

1 pair rubbers 75 

1 black sateen petticoat 1.00 

1 long white petticoat 1.25 

2 short white petticoats @ .75 1.50 

retrimming last year's best winter hat 1.25 

summer hat (new) 4.00 

1 straw hat, common wear 75 

1 umbrella 1 .00 

*i wool dress skirt 4.00 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 233 

*3 shirt waists: 2 tailored @ 1.00 

*i fancy @ 1.50 $ 3.50 

1 winter coat 12.00 

1 spring coat (left from last year) 

1 pair kid gloves 1.50 

1 pair wool gloves 50 

1 wool dress (winter, bought close of season) 12.00 

1 sweater 3 .00 

*i summer dress 3.00 

*i white duck dress skirt 1.00 

1 party dress (left over from last year) 

Gloves, handkerchiefs, neckties, collars received for 
Christmas. 

Total #75-6o 

Notice that in the second year some articles are left over from 
the year before. This is because Ann has foresight. She is a 
good manager, and takes care of her clothes too, and plans ahead. 
Do you ? 

Second Year 

2 union suits (left from last year, winter) 

2 union suits (left from last year, summer) 

1 new union suit summer $ .50 

2 flannelette nightgowns (left over) 
2 summer nightdresses (left over) 

1 new summer nightdress 75 

*3 corset covers @ .50 . '. 1.50 

2 pairs of corsets @ 2.00 4.00 

6 pairs of stockings @ .25 1.50 

2 pairs of garters @ .25 50 

shoes: 1 high laced @ 3.00 

1 pair low shoes @ 2.50 

1 pair low left over, half soled @ .75 

1 pair high laced, half soled @ .75 7.00 



234 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

i pair rubbers . .$ .75 

1 black sateen petticoat 1.00 

1 long white petticoat (left over) 

2 short white petticoats (left over) 

1 new short white petticoat .75 

I winter hat 5.00 

1 winter hat (left over) common wear 

1 summer hat (retrimmed) 1.50 

1 new summer hat (second) 2.00 

1 umbrella (left over) 

*i wool skirt (refreshened) 1.00 

*2 shirt waists (plain) @ 1.00 2.00 

*i extra white waist @ 1.50 1.50 

2 shirt waists (left over) 
1 winter coat (left over) 

1 spring coat (new) , 1 2.00 

1 pair kid gloves 1.00 

1 pair wool gloves (left over) 

1 wool dress (left over) 

1 sweater (left over) 

*i summer dress (left over, remodeled) 1.00 

1 white duck skirt (left over) 

*i new white duck skirt 1.00 

*i party dress 8.00 

1 coat suit, bought end of winter season 14.00 

2 gingham aprons 1.00 

1 gingham house dress (ready-made) 1.50 

1 summer dress 4.00 

Total #74-75 

Try to find below, in the list for third year, the articles left over. 
Also new articles which will be of service the fourth year. Do you 
not think it is wise to plan in this way ? Marjorie and Barbara 
have enjoyed making their budgets. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 235 

Third Year 

2 union suits, winter @ 2.00 .$ 4.00 

2 union suits, summer @ .50 1.00 

1 union suit, summer (left over) 

2 flannelette nightgowns @ 1.00 2.00 

1 new summer nightgown @ .75 75 

1 summer nightgown (left over) 

*3 corset covers @ .50 1.50 

2 pairs corsets @ 2.00 4.00 

6 pairs of stockings @ .25 1.50 

2 pairs garters @ .25 50 

shoes : 1 pair high laced @ 3.00 

1 pair high laced repaired, left over, @ .75 

1 pair low shoes (new) @ 2.50 

1 pair party slippers (new) @ 2.00. 8.25 

1 pair rubbers .75 

1 black sateen petticoat 1.00 

1 long white petticoat 1.25 

1 new short white petticoat 75 

1 short white petticoat (left over) 

retrimming last year's winter hat 1.25 

1 winter hat (common wear) 1.50 

1 summer hat (new) 5.00 

1 summer hat (remodeled, common wear) 1.00 

1 umbrella 1.00 

*i wool skirt 4.00 

*2 shirt waists (plain) @ 1.00 2.00 

*i extra white waist @ 1.00 1.00 

2 shirt waists (left over) 

1 winter coat (left over 2 years) 
1 spring coat (left over one year) 

1 pair kid gloves 1.50 

1 pair wool gloves 50 



236 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

*i wool dress (remodeled after 2 winters' wear) # 3.00 

2 white duck skirts (left over) 

1 party dress left over (refreshened) 2.50 

1 coat suit (left over) 

2 gingham aprons (left over) 

I gingham house dress (new) 1.50 

1 gingham house dress (left over) 

1 summer dress remodeled 1.00 

1 new summer dress 4.00 

1 raincoat 5.00 

1 wool dress (bought towards close of season) 10.00 

1 pair winter arctics 2.00 

Total #75-00 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

Plan a clothing budget with mother's help, and see how yours 
will differ from the above. Perhaps mother spends less for your 
clothes or more. Mrs. Allen says that Marjorie is learning to pur- 
chase so wisely that next year she may buy all of her own 
clothes. *Of course, Mrs. Allen will always be willing to help 
when Marjorie needs her. 

Lesson 8 

planning to make a dress skirt of cotton material 
Let us begin to make our dress skirts. 

Open the pattern carefully and examine it. How did 
you order it, by age or by waist measure ? The pattern 
books usually say order by age for a girl unless she is 
large or small for her age ; then order by waist measure. 

Notice how many pieces you have. Notice whether 
some are to be cut on a lengthwise fold : perhaps, the 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



237 



Gores are of 



center front and maybe the center back if it has a 
panel front and back. Notice how many gores there 
are. Do you know what a skirt gore is ? Look at 
your pieces. A gore is always wider at the bottom 
than at the top. Can you tell why ? 
different shapes. Style sometimes regu- 
lates the width, for some seasons skirts 
are very narrow and at other times very 
full. The gores help to reduce the full- 
ness around the waist. Do you under- 
stand ? Notice how many gores your 
pattern has. The front panel is counted 
as one gore, and the back panel a gore. 
There are skirt patterns with three, 
four, or even eleven or more gores. 
Perhaps your pattern has three gores 
like the one in the picture (Fig. 128). 
Then the center back will be cut on 
a lengthwise fold of material, as there 
will be two front gores joining the back 
with seams at the hips. This is an 
easy pattern and suitable for a young 
girl. One must think of suitability in selecting the 
style to be worn. Instead of three, you may have a 
plain five or seven gored skirt. Then the center front 
will be placed on a lengthwise fold, and there will be two 
gores each side of the front for the five gored skirt, and 
three each side of the front for the seven gored. A 
five gored skirt is a simple one. 




Fig. 128. — The 
simple dress skirt 
and shirt waist. 



238 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Study your pattern. Notice all the notches ; also 
just where the pattern is to be placed on the warp 
threads. This is very necessary. Take your tape- 
line and measure the skirt length ; compare with your 
own measures. Your teacher will show you how to 
take your skirt measure, at front, hips, and back, 
from the waist line to the desired length (see page 50). 
You have learned how. Pin the tapeline about the 
waist and measure from it. If your pattern is too long, 
it will be wise to double it over at the center to reduce 
the length. If too short, add a few inches at the bottom 
in cutting your cloth. Remember you must allow for 
the hem according to desired width (see page 50 for 
changing patterns). 

Now lay the pieces economically. Remember the 
wide end of the gore usually cuts to best advantage 
at the end of the cloth. Pin and cut out after your 
teacher has approved. 

The pattern usually allows from f to 1 inch for seams. 
Notice how much. Match the notches, pin, baste, and 
then try on. If too loose or too tight, it is possible to 
stitch inside or outside of the bastings and so to alter. 
The seams can be finished by overcasting the rough 
edges (see Fig. 28). 

If your pattern calls for an opening or placket at 
one side of the front, it will be appropriate to make a 
hem running lengthwise of the skirt as a finish at the 
placket, and the skirt will not be seamed with a simple 
seam at that place. Turn to the wrong side one inch 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 239 

for hem along the right front. Baste. Lap this hem 
over the left side. Baste flat to the left portion of 
front, and stitch nearly one inch from edge, to within 
8 or 9 inches of the top. The placket opening on the 
under side of front can be bound with a two inch strip, 
sewing on right side at the edge and turning to wrong 
just at the edge. If the pattern does not allow for 
a hem on right front and lap finish on the right side of 
front, but only for a simple seam, then it will be neces- 
sary to face the right front portion with a strip i^ 
inches wide. 

Pin the skirt to the belting. It is possible to turn in 
the skirt edge at top of belt so that it comes even with 
the top of the belt. This makes a slightly raised waist 
line. Stitch neatly at the top edge. Turn hem at 
the bottom the desired width and baste carefully. The 
stitching of the hem can be done on the right side for 
neater finish if the basting is done with care. 

Sew on hooks and eyes. Be careful to attach the 
hooks so that they will not show on the outside of skirt. 

Mollie Stark was so successful with her skirt that 
she made one for her older sister Ruth, and also won 
the prize at the County Fair contest. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Study some of the skirt patterns which mother has at home. 
Compare with the one used at school. 

2. What is a skirt gore ? Describe. Draw on the blackboard. 

3. Give some suggestions for economical cutting. 



240 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Lesson 9 

clothing in relation to health 

Do you know that clothes help to keep us well ? The Pleasant 
Valley girls learned how, and we are to study, too. 

Well people are usually happy people and they can 
do many more things for themselves and for others 
than sick people. Have you ever thought about this ? 
All people wish to be well, but many are not because 
they forget that it is absolutely necessary to think each 
day about keeping well. There are many things which 
help to accomplish this. One cannot wait until the 
end of the month or year to think about keeping well, 
but must do so every day, as you have learned. Exer- 
cise and good habits, sleep, proper food, recreation, 
and proper clothing all have a share. Clothes are more 
important than people think. Ill health is often the 
result of lack of thought in the protection of the body. 
Let us study how clothes affect health. You know 
clothing helps to keep us warm or cool, if we dress 
properly. You have learned how necessary it is to 
preserve an even body temperature. Growing girls 
must think about this, for no girl is well dressed who 
does not think about the relation of clothes to health. 
Is a dress really beautiful if it is unhygienic ? Miss 
Travers told the Mothers' Club that clothing should 
serve our use in the best way, should be pleasing and 
artistic, but also comfortable enough to permit freedom. 
Did you ever feel sorry for the poor Chinese women 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



241 



who squeeze their feet ? Many American women 
squeeze their waists as well as their feet. This pre- 
vents proper circulation of the blood and causes many 
complaints, loss of hair, and serious troubles, because 
the circulatory system cannot carry nourishment to 
the many parts of the body. 

Perhaps you have noticed some girls wear very 
thin stockings, low shoes, and low-necked dresses ; 
really very scant clothing in cold weather. Is this a 
good practice, do you think ? Why 
not ? 

Heat and energy are generated by 
the body. We have learned that it is 
a machine. Food, water, exercise, 
rest, keep it going. Heat and energy 
are the result and are needed if the 
machine is to run well. If the heat 
is all carried away quickly because the 
surfaces of the body are exposed to the cold, then there 
is a waste of the energy which should go to provide for 
the necessary workings of the body. 

Why do we wear clothing ? The principal reason 
is that the body may be protected from the cold and 
that the temperature of the body may be kept constant. 
It protects also from sharp, hard objects and briers 
and stones which might injure the feet. Many people 
think only of the decoration. This does affect our 
choice of clothes too, but should not be the prime con- 
sideration. Miss Travers told the girls of Pleasant 




Fig. 129. — Shoes are 
important. Why ? 



242 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Valley to keep these things in mind in choosing 
clothes : 

Some things to remember in choosing wearing apparel. 

1. Adapt your clothing to your work. One cannot do garden 

and house work in stiff collars and unsuitable clothing. 

2. The condition of health will affect choice. Strong, well 

people do not need the same kind of clothing as sick or 
delicate people. 

5. Age makes a difference; young people are more vigorous 
than old people. Babies feel the heat or cold more than 
adults. 

4. Clothing should be chosen in relation to climate and tem- 
perature ; in winter, one should prevent an undue loss of 
heat, in summer, clothing should not interfere with loss 
of heat. 
Some important things about wearing clothing. 

1. Wet clothing is very dangerous and should be removed at 

once. If this is not possible, exercise, keep moving, until 
there is opportunity for a rubdown and change. John 
Alden always runs when he gets his clothes very wet. 

2. The clothing worn next to the skin should be changed 

twice a week. The body gives off impurities which are 
absorbed by the clothing. This change is necessary if 
one wishes to keep well. 

3. Clothing worn at night should be aired during the day, 

not shut up in a closet or folded and placed under a pillow. 

4. Clothing worn during the day should be aired at night. 

This is necessary for health. The same underwear should 
never be worn day and night both. How do you air your 
clothes ? (Fig. 56.) Many mothers do not change baby's 
shirt at night and wonder why he cannot sleep and is so 
cross. Sometimes this irritability is due to this very 
cause. 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 243 

5. Outer garments should be rather closely woven, so that 

the wind cannot penetrate and carry the heat away too 
rapidly. 

6. Heavy garments are a great burden. One wearing them 

is not free to act or work. 

Next lesson we will study about selecting our clothes, 
shoes, underwear, and other garments with reference 
to health. 

. EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Write on the blackboard some important things to remem- 
ber in choosing wearing apparel. 

2. Tell some important things to remember in wearing clothing. 

Lesson 10 

more health problems in choosing clothes 

Clothes help to keep us well. Let us study about the wise 
selection and use of them. 

Buying shoes. When Barbara Oakes goes to buy 
a pair of shoes what do you suppose she thinks about 
besides the fact that they are pretty and that she likes 
or dislikes them ? She remembers that they should 
fit her feet. She thinks about these things : 

1. They should suit her purpose, be adapted to her 
use. 

2. They should fit the instep and heel snugly. 

3. They should be straight on the inside line. 

4. The heel should be broad enough to balance the 
body well. 



244 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

5. The soles should be strong enough to walk, and 
thick enough so dampness cannot strike through. 

6. There should be plenty of room for the toes to 
move. (See Fig. 129). 

7. They should be long and wide enough for com- 
fort. Tight shoes are a strain on the body. 

Many girls have " fallen arch." This affects the 
whole nervous system and makes them ill. Many are 
suffering and do not know the cause. Barbara Oakes 
was ill for a long time before her mother or the doctor 
knew why. It is not necessary to wear an arch sup- 
porter or an orthopedic shoe, if one has normal feet ; 
and one can have normal feet if the above things are 
remembered. Some girls choose foolish footwear, and 
later have much discomfort and are unable to walk. 

Very great care must be taken to keep the feet dry. 
It is cheaper to buy a pair of rubbers than to pay a 
doctor ; and rubbers save shoes and keep the wet from 
rotting the thread of the shoes. Many women forget 
that it is dangerous for a woman to get her feet wet. 

Selecting clothing that is healthful. Stockings should 
be chosen in relation to climate. It is unwise to wear 
thin, transparent stockings on a cold day. If possible 
have two weights and select according to weather. 

Corsets are important. They may seriously affect 
health if not worn correctly. They should fit snugly 
over the hips but allow freedom at the waist line. For 
young girls corset waists are very satisfactory. Great 
care should be taken, however, when the first corset is 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 



H5 



selected. Jane Smith says her mother tried several for 
her before getting exactly the right one. The corset 
should leave no marks on the body. The danger is 
that, unless well fitted, a corset interferes with circu- 
lation. Lacing causes all kinds of 
troubles. It deforms the body and 
makes it hour glass in shape, in- 
stead of free and beautiful like Miss 
James' picture of the Venus de Milo 
(Fig. 130). When tight bands or 
corsets interfere with circulation, 
the blood supply for the brain and 
the other organs is shut off, and 
consequently these organs are not 
nourished. Most girls wish to pre- 
serve the graceful waist line with 
which nature has endowed them. 
Do you ? Fat easily accumulates 
around the waist, but plenty of ex- 
ercise, gardening, sweeping, walking, 
climbing, will prevent this. Buy a 
corset which supports your organs, 
one which does not press down- 
wards ; and arrange the garters so that they will not 
be too tight and interfere with the circulation. 

Underwear affects health. Do you remember that 
we discovered the reason why one should be particular 
about the kind of underwear worn ? We learned that 
ill health and fatigue are often caused by weight of 




Fig. 130. — Notice the 

beautiful lines on the 

figure of Venus de 
Milo. 



246 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

clothing or by tight clothing causing lack of circulation 
or by clothing which prevents the skin from being venti- 
lated. Textile materials and temperature of the body 
are closely related. We should learn to know which 
materials to select. Each person feels the need differ- 
ently. Old people and little babies feel the heat or cold 
more than other people. Grandmother Stark usually 
feels cold and wears a shawl about her shoulders. 
Underwear must be chosen in relation to climatic con- 
ditions and also for conditions under which one wears 
them, for indoor or outdoor work. Each must study her 
health, the climate, her age, and occupation, and plan 
accordingly for the best kind. 

Underwear should be chosen which can be easily 
cleansed, also that which will permit plenty of air next 
to the skin. These properties of materials, as we call 
them, must be studied. 

The body, as we know, loses heat and water every 
day. Some materials conduct heat more rapidly than 
others ; and some absorb and retain, while others elim- 
inate, moisture more readily. Absorption and elim- 
ination differ with different fabrics. Linen is quicker 
than other fabrics to eliminate moisture. Wool on 
a dry body of a person who does not exercise freely 
feels warm and continues so as long as the skin does 
not give off more moisture than the wool can take up. 
If the body continues then to give off moisture, the 
heat of the body cannot escape and one does not feel 
comfortable. If a current of air or a draught occurs, 



MAKING OTHER GARMENTS 247 

the heat will be conducted quickly and the bodily tem- 
perature reduced too quickly. So underwear must not 
only prevent too great loss of heat by conduction, but 
must be so constructed as to conserve heat when it is 
needed. 

Heat is eliminated when materials conduct it. 
Porosity of materials prevents too great elimination. 
The air in the meshes or pores prevents this, as a still 
layer of air does not conduct heat readily. A loosely 
woven or knitted shawl is warmer under certain con- 
ditions than one which is firmer. Two lightweight 
garments are better than one heavy one because of the 
air space between. 

Wool is warm, but irritating to many people. It is 
not as cleanly as some fabrics, for it absorbs the body 
excretions and is not easily laundered. As it shrinks 
with use, it has fewer air spaces between the meshes. 
Any loosely woven or knitted underwear with air 
spaces is more hygienic than the closely woven. 

Cotton garments are often woven loosely and so 
treated in manufacture that they absorb easily. Silk 
is very pleasing but costly. Silk and wool combined 
are also excellent, but expensive. The great argument 
for wool or for wool and cotton is that evaporation is 
slow unless moisture and draught are present, and so 
the bodily temperature is not apt to be reduced so 
unduly as through cotton or linen ; in other words, one 
is not so apt to take cold. 

Union suits form an even layer over the whole body 



248 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

and are considered more hygienic than the double layer 
of vest and drawers at the abdomen. 



EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. What underwear do-^mu think is the best kind for you to wear 
considering your age, work, climate, health ? 

2. Write a composition of two hundred words about the best 
kind of corsets to wear, and why. 

3. What important things will you consider the next time you 
buy a pair of shoes ? 

REVIEW PROBLEMS 

I. Begin to keep your clothing budget. Ask mother to permit 
you to plan it. Do not stop at the end of the year ; keep on for at 
least four years. 

II. In what ways are you definitely planning each day to keep 
well ? How do clothes help ? 

III. What facts learned at school can you give mother about 
wool, which will help in buying your new winter coat. 

IV. Plan a school exhibit of all the work done during the year. 
Your teacher will make suggestions about the refreshments and 
invitations as well as plans for mounting the work. 




CHAPTER VI 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 



Have you ever thought that being properly and at- 
tractively dressed helps towards achieving success in 
life ? Marjorie's Cousin Ann says she knows that the 
neat, tidy girls who come to the factory looking for 
work are more apt to be chosen than those who are 
careless about their dress. Cousin Ann, as you have 
learned, is very particular about her appearance. She 
learned long ago that cleanliness of clothing is the first 
essential in being well dressed, and that neatness is 
another requirement. Cousin Ann knows that it takes 
time to wash out her collars, her shields, and stockings 
every other night ; but she also realizes that she must 
be particular about her appearance if she wishes to be 
retained at the factory. She takes time to mend the 
tears which sometimes come so unexpectedly, and the 
lace which is ripped on her waist, or to sew on the but- 
ton which will soon be lost from her coat unless sewed. 
If she spills anything on her dress or coat, she tries as 
soon as possible to remove the spot. This takes 



249 



2 5 o CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

thought, too, as well as time ; but Ann knows that it 
pays. Have you, too, thought about these things ? 
One must also know what is suitable and appropriate 
for various occasions, and how to choose becoming 
colors in materials or hats and gowns if one buys them 
ready-made. This is really a study in buying, too, and 
of knowing how materials are made and can be tested. 
All these things were discussed by Miss James and the 
Pleasant Valley girls. They were always very glad 
when Miss Travers came to help too. 



Lesson i 

what it means to be well dressed 

The Pleasant Valley girls have decided that it is worth while 
learning about suitable and attractive dress.' They are anxious 
to begin this study. Suppose we learn some of the things one must 
think about and study in order to be properly and attractively 
dressed. 

One does not have to be expensively dressed in 
order to be attractively and well dressed. Much de- 
pends on appropriateness. It is not appropriate for a 
girl to wear jewelry, thin stockings, low fancy slippers, 
lace waists, feather hats, to work or to school. How 
much more attractive and appropriate is a plain, neat 
shirt waist and cloth skirt, a plain necktie and a simple 
hat, and plain boots or ties. One should not dress as 
if one were going to a party when one goes to work or 
to school. Do you understand what appropriateness 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 251 



means ? It means wearing the suitable kind of clothing 
for every occasion. It is our duty to be as well dressed 
as possible, for our friends' sakes as well as for our own ; 
but a well-dressed girl is never conspicuous. Clothes 
which would be appropriate in a large city for a recep- 
tion might be very inappropriate in a small town. 
Our daily clothes should 
be adapted to our uses, 
whether in country or city. 
Would you wear your party 
dress for gardening or for 
tennis or skating ? 

Criticize your own gar- 
ments. Try to have them 
neat and clean, for this 
makes one more self-re- 
specting. Try to have 
your clothes convenient, 
neat, graceful, beautiful, 
allowing for free move- 
ments of the body. ChoOSe FlG - I3I- — Which of these girls looks 
. . i • i • ready to do her work r 

something which is not 

overdecorated but which will emphasize your charm 
and personality. Young girls do not need jewelry or 
much decoration on clothes, for youth is always charm- 
ing in itself. 

Some girls try to copy every " latest style." Do 
you ? One should not unless it is a style which will 
suit one. Cousin Ann heard a talk at the Young 




252 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Women's Christian Association one night. It was on 
simplicity of dress. The speaker was from a large 
department store in Paterson where Ann lives, and she 
gave Ann some new ideas about dress. She said sim- 
plicity is not necessarily plainness, but it means being 
so intelligent that one knows what to leave off in the 
way of decoration. She said being well dressed is know- 
ing what to omit. She also said that trimmings and 
ornaments without reason are foolish and spoil a gown. 
Because one bow looks well it does not follow that ten 
will improve one's appearance. So many girls are really 
caricatures. They wear every exaggerated thing and 
many things which are not refined, as the very low 
neck, or the very scant or transparent skirt. This is 
not beauty of dress, but very bad and vulgar taste. 
The speaker said that " beauty of costume is not neces- 
sarily the result of costliness, but of artistic apprecia- 
tion." Cousin Ann said several of the members of her 
sewing club were at this lecture, and they decided to 
ask Miss Willing, who leads their club, to talk about 
" artistic appreciation." Cousin Ann said she did not 
quite understand what the speaker meant. This is 
what Miss Willing told the girls, and then they under- 
stood perfectly. Perhaps you would like to know, too. 
A costume is a work of art. She said we must think 
of our costumes as being works of art. Every girl has 
a style of her own, and she should study it and dress so 
as to bring out all her good points and conceal those 
not so attractive. One's hair or eyes should be con- 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 253 

sidered in choosing color. Stooped or narrow shoulders, 
if they cannot be corrected, can be made to look less nar- 
row by the plan of the gown. Stout figures can be made 
to look less stout. So by choosing the right colors and 
correct decoration and right lines, one can often improve 
one's appearance. Miss Willing says to understand 
about this is to have what the speaker at the Young 
Women's Christian Association called "artistic apprecia- 
tion." One should cultivate artistic appreciation for 
good furnishings as well as for appropriate dress. Miss 
Willing told the girls another evening about color and 
good lines, for they are all so anxious to learn. They 
never even imagined before that any one ever thought 
about such things. Marjorie Allen and the other girls 
at Pleasant Valley School are very glad Cousin Ann 
told them too. 

The costume should be the background as it were. 
Miss Willing says to remember always that a really 
artistic costume is one which makes us say " what a 
lovely girl ! ,J rather than " what a lovely gown she is 
wearing." A costume should not be so strong in color 
or design that one thinks only of that. Do you re- 
member how in some rooms we feel the pattern of the 
wall paper or of the carpet. When one does, the design 
is poor ; the wall is the background. Our clothes should 
make the wearers' good qualities stand out. They 
should be subordinate, Miss Willing says. Do you 
understand that word ? 

Miss Willing says the outline of our clothed figures 



254 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



should be pleasing. Have you ever walked to town and 
seen girls with large hats which were not balanced on 
their heads, and short skirts and perhaps large 
muffs ? If you watch them as they come towards you 
down the street, you will see that the whole outline or 
silhouette against the sky or house 
is poor ; they look top-heavy or, we 
say, unbalanced. Such a costume is 
not good. A smaller hat with the 
short skirt is what is needed in order 
to have a balanced figure. The out- 
line of the natural human figure is 
most beautiful. Look at the lovely 
figure of the Grecian woman (Fig. 
132) ; see how the lines follow her 
figure. Costumes which make ugly 
lumps, as bustles and large muffs, 
and other ugly shapes are not well 
balanced. 

An artistic dress shows good taste. 
Do you remember your talks in your 
art class about the spaces in a design, 
and the relation of one to the other. 
This is true in dresses too. Tucks, buttons, seams, bands 
of trimming all mark off spaces on our bodies (Fig. 133). 
In order to have a really artistic dress, there must be a 
plan about the arrangement of spaces. A short, stout 
girl with bands of trimming running around her skirt 
and with lines of trimming running up and down the 




Fig. 132. — Notice the 
lovely folds of the 
Grecian costume. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 255 



waist will present a very strange appearance to one who 
has " artistic appreciation." Can you tell why this 
would not be good taste ? A stout figure should wear 
vertical lines of trimming rather than horizontal ; and 
the spaces between lines should be such as will make the 
girl look smaller rather than larger ; 
so dresses must be really designed, 
and the spaces, colors, values, really 
thought about. Do you know what 
value means ? Some costumes have 
contrast in values. Black and white 
are sharp contrasts. One sees the 
black or the white at once. These 
spots of black or white jump at one 
unless there is something to connect 
the two, as gray, which would be an 
intermediate value. Spotty cos- 
tumes are not good or restful. Have 
you seen, perhaps, a white dress with 
black hat and gloves and shoes ? Did 
you notice how the black things 
stand out and the eye jumps from one spot of black to 
another ? A white dress with white shoes and gloves 
and a black hat trimmed with some white, thus carry- 
ing some of the white to the black, would be better. 

Miss Willing said this is called studying values. We 
can study values of color as well as of black and white. 
Next lesson we shall learn what Miss Willing told the 
girls about color in selecting or making dresses. 




— Notice the 
good spacing and ar- 
rangement of lines. 



256 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Why do you think Miss Willing had "good taste" in dress ? 

2. What can you tell about Miss Willing' s talk on artistic 
appreciation ? What does it mean in relation to dress ? 

3. Criticize your own garments in relation to line, simplicity, 
decoration, appropriateness. 

Lesson 2 

the choice of colors for clothing 

Color is important in choosing or making our clothes. We too 
must learn if we would choose as wisely as the Pleasant Valley girls. 

Miss James thinks that the Pleasant Valley girls 
have learned so much about color in relation to general 
design in their art classes that they will be able to 
understand easily about color in dress too. Colors, 
they have learned, have value, with gradations from light 
to dark. In black and white the contrast is striking, 
but when values are closer together the harmony is 
closer and less conspicuous. 

In choosing your new spring dress be sure to think 
of your own characteristics. Your appearance may be 
injured or improved according to the color chosen. 
Color even more than design may spoil the appearance, 
and is important to the wearer and to all who come in 
contact with her, for color is expression of one's refine- 
ment and culture. Every girl of Pleasant Valley will 
wish to know how to look her best. Color in which 
there has been mixed much gray, as dull blue or dull 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 257 



red rather than pure bright color, is apt to make the 
individual characteristics stand out. This grayness in 
color forms a background as it were, or a set- 
ting, for the face and shows the figure to best 
advantage. 

Artists have a way of expressing this bril- 
liancy of color. Miss James says they call it 
intensity. Do you understand what is meant 
by color when it is strongest and loudest and 
most intense ? Think of red of the most 
vivid brilliant kind ; gradually think of it 
growing grayer and grayer until it is pure 
gray. By intensity of a color is meant this 
difference in grayness. Very few people can 
wear very bright red. Miss James says she 
must have the " grayed " colors, in dahlia 
tones of red if she wishes a dark dress of 
this color, or in old rose if she wishes a dress 
which will be less somber. This is true of 
all colors ; only red is perhaps the most diffi- 
cult to use. One learns to use color in its 
full intensity only for touches here and there 
on a gown or a hat, which is itself not intense 
in color. 

Large people should not wear red. Blue or green 
are cooling, quieting colors and so are better adapted 
to large figures than red and also better for those 
whose features are not very pronounced. Blues 
which are not very strong, or so grayed that they 




Fig. 134. — 
Can you 
find the 
middle 
values of 
gray ? 



258 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

have lost half or more than half of their strength, are 
more interesting and becoming for large figures for a 
whole dress. 

Yellow is nearest light, and in combination with red 
gives the oranges from which we get browns of all 
kinds and degrees, rich and warm in effect. Try mix- 
ing these colors in your paint box. Green combines 
yellow and blue. It is a light, cheerful, and calm color, 
always restful and soothing. The yellow-greens are 
perhaps more cheerful ; that is, when more yellow than 
blue is used. When more blue is introduced, the 
greens are more soothing and cool. Violet is red and 
blue mixed ; a cool and exciting color, which can be 
very intense or very subdued. 

Choosing color for a dress. Do you think the Pleas- 
ant Valley girls will think before choosing their new 
gowns whether it is for school, or for a best dress, for a 
party or for the house ? Even apron material can be 
chosen which will make the wearer look unattractive. 
Why not look pretty and clean when one is at work too ? 
Miss Willing says that quiet color in dress is an evi- 
dence of good taste. In combining colors in dress one 
must aim to obtain the right balance in color. Miss 
Willing says, in planning the color scheme for a costume, 
think about the dominant or most prominent color and 
endeavor to bring the others into harmony with it. 
Harmony is the result of colors being brought together. 
Touches of black help to bring colors together and so 
harmonize them. Miss Willing gave several other 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 259 

suggestions for harmony. Cousin Ann put them down 
in her notebook and sent them to Marjorie. 

1. When one wishes to use contrasting colors, as yellow and 
violet, one can get pleasing harmony by using a large quantity of 
one color and a small amount of the other. This subordinate 
relationship of one color to the other gives harmony; the more 
grayed the tone of the large mass of color, the greater the intensity 
of color in contrast that can be used. 

2. In combining colors of weak intensity for harmony, a 
harmony of costume of one mode, that is one color used in different 
values, is safe but is not always so interesting as the contrasting 
colors. * 

3. To emphasize a color, a touch of the same may be added to 
some part of the costume. Blue eyes seem even more blue with a 
blue necktie around the shirt waist collar. 

4. Another way to make a good harmony is to use complemen- 
tary colors. Red and blue; green, violet, and yellow; green and 
plum ; blue and orange ; purple and yellow-green. One should be 
used intense, and the other in a gray tone. For example, in com- 
bining color with hair, greens, particularly gray greens, are very 
pleasing with auburn hair. Barbara Oakes discovered that fact 
with her auburn hair. Violet tends to make yellow hair look more 
golden, so care must be taken to have a gray violet so the gold color 
in the hair will not be overpowered. "Red" hair is made to look 
brighter when a blue costume is worn. So you see one can avoid 
unfortunate combinations if one studies the strength of the color 
of the hair in relation to the colors to be used. 

Learning to combine colors. Miss James had many 
samples of gauzy chiffons which the girls learned to 
handle and to combine so as to get artistic results, for 
combinations of complementary and contrasting colors 



260 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

as well as for combinations of " one hue." It is only 
through trying that one learns. This, too, is a matter 
of appreciation. Some people have finer appreciation 
for color than others. By thinking about this and 
learning all you can in school and from books, you too 
may come to have real color appreciation. 

In choosing the best colors for your figure or for 
mother's or for auntie's, you must think about the 
value and intensity as well as the other characteristics 
of color. 

Our costumes, as a rule, are worn for different occa- 
sions and are seen against different backgrounds. We 
say that the backgrounds, as in rooms, or against rocks 
or grass or hillside, are of about middle value — half- 
way between white and black ; in other words, gray. 
Black and white costumes, then, will always stand out. 
White tends to make the figure appear large ; black 
calls attention to the outlines of figure and looks best on 
people with good figures because of this emphasis of 
outline. Blue, blue green, and blue violet — if of middle 
value, very " gray " — or gray itself are best adapted 
to stout figures as they are retiring colors. They seem 
to melt into the background and do not give prominence 
to the figure. A little brighter color may be added and 
make the costume more becoming to the face. This 
should be used through the center of the gown, not at 
the edge to draw the eye to the boundaries of the stout 
figure. A rose or a flower of contrast at the center of the 
belt is an example. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 261 





Studying lines of a costume. Miss 

James says the best way to get an 

effect of height is to place the longest 

possible vertical lines through the 

center of the figure with no points of 

emphasis as trimming on the outer 

parts (Fig. 135). For a slim figure, 

when one wishes to appear stout, the 

outline of the figure should be empha- 
sized at the outer sides of sleeves or 

shoulders or skirts, by such arrange- 
ment of trimming that 
the eye is carried across 
the figure (Fig. 136). 
Miss Willing and the 
girls had a good laugh 
about the use of large 
plaids and broad stripes for stout people. 
Plaids or squares certainly tend to em- 
phasize stoutness, as do bold designs 
or conspicuous color combinations. 

So many things to remember — line, 
value, color ; all-important, if one is to 
be attractively dressed. Miss James has 
decided to permit the girls to work out 

Fig. 136. — Notice the color combinations at school for 

how the emphasis , . . , r™ i • r 

on the outside of their new spring dresses. I he subject 01 
the costume makes co l or m choosing hats is equally impor- 

the figure appear . 

larger. tant. Let us study next lesson about it. 



Fig. 135. — Vertical 
lines through the 
center of the costume 
make the figure ap- 
pear thinner. 



262 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Study your own characterisics. Write them down. Decide 
what predominating color you would like for a spring dress. From 
the chiffon colors which your teacher has, combine the appropriate 
color combination which you would like. 

2. Arrange with the chiffon samples, combinations of comple- 
mentary colors, of contrasting colors. 

3. Write a composition on the subject of "What makes a girl 
well dressed." 

\ 
Lesson 3 

selecting a hat 

What can you learn about the care and arrangement of your hair. 
Do you know how to choose a hat ? 

Jane Smith says that some day she expects to be a 
milliner. Perhaps she will be. Miss James says she 
can later go to a school and study millinery. This 
means that Jane will learn not only how to make hats, 
but about the right lines and colors to use. Jane has 
a natural deftness of touch and a good idea about copy- 
ing and designing ; so Miss James thinks she will make 
a good milliner. So often hats are unbecoming because 
the colors are inharmonious, or the lines out of relation 
to the face wearing them. Whether one is old or young, 
one should think about this. 

Give some care and thought to your hair. One day 
when Miss Travers came from the State College to 
speak to the Mothers' Clubs, she stopped at the school 
and gave a talk to the girls of Pleasant Valley School 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 263 

about their hair and hats. She said that so many wo- 
men and girls forget to take care of their hair. It 
should be washed once a month in hot water with cas- 
tile soap and perhaps with the white of an egg, and then 
thoroughly rinsed. The comb and brush should be 
washed once a week. Marjorie Allen's mother has 
beautiful hair, and she says she does as Miss Travers 
told the girls ; and also she brushes her hair carefully 
to remove dust, every night 
before going to bed, and 
braids her hair in two 
braids for the night. This 
is a very good way to care 
for one's hair. 

Have you ever noticed 
how some girls nearly lose 
all their hair because they v U7U . , , T, • 

J riG. 137. — Which arrangement or hair 
bum it Or dry it Up with and bow do you think most appropriate 

the curling irons? One for scho ° l wear ? 
should be very careful always to test the irons on a 
paper. Burned hair is not beautiful. So often girls 
forget that the becomingness of a hat will depend on 
the way the hair is taken care of or dressed. 

Large bows, out of proportion to the size of the head, 
are very poor taste. A bow as well as a hat should 
suit the face in line as well as color, and a bow which 
stands way out in conspicuous angles is not good in 
line, as it is not apt to conform to the lines of the face 
and of the head wearing it. Have you noticed this ? 




264 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

Perhaps you can try to rearrange some of the bows the 
girls are wearing to school so they will be in better taste. 
Cleanliness of the head and hair, and a clean, clear 
complexion, which comes from proper food and good 
digestion as well as from cleanliness, are the best back- 
grounds for a hat. Any girl who has this charm of 
cleanliness can with thought choose a hat which will 
be becoming. Hats, also, emphasize the defects as 
well as the good points of the wearer ; so neatness and a 
becoming way of arranging the hair will help very much. 
Perhaps some of the girls would like to learn to make 
hats, too. The hat is the most difficult article of the 
whole wardrobe to select. Most girls and women 
wear hats that are too small and that stand on the 
top of the head instead of fitting it. Good taste, Miss 
James says, in choosing hats means the very thing we 
have studied about : artistic appreciation, a knowledge 
of line and color and form as well as appropriateness. 

Think about the shape and the lines of a hat. Hats 
should be chosen or planned, if one is making them, 
in relation to the whole figure. Do you stand up or 
sit down before the mirror in selecting a hat ? Try 
standing up so you can see your whole figure and the 
relation of the hat to the whole. You can tell then if 
the hat is too large or too small, whether it overbal- 
ances the figure, or if the silhouette will be pleasing. 
Marjorie Allen says since she has learned about these 
things she is surprised to notice how few people have 
thought of this question of the silhouette. Sometimes, 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 265 



fh 



the milliners are to blame too, for they do not always 
know this secret. Marjorie says her new winter hat 
does not please her because of the silhouette. 

Miss Travers told the girls to think especially about 
lines. The round-faced girl whose nose turns up a little 
will look best in a hat that is 
slightly tilted in front or with 
a rolling brim at the side or 
front. Barbara Oakes says she 
discovered that for herself. She 
had two hats which rolled in 
that way ; and she liked them 
better and was more comfortable 
in them than in others. She also 
learned through experience that 
she did not look well in narrow 
hats that bend over the face. 
Miss Travers says it is true 
when one's face is full and the 
nose retrousse, that such a shape 
is not apt to be becoming. 

Miss James says she noticed 
that long, thin faces look longer 
and thinner in high pointed trimmings. What kind 
of trimming, then, would you recommend for a long, 
thin face ? For long faces, a brim worn slightly forward 
will cast a shadow and so tend to shorten the lengtl\ of 
the face ; and brims that are rolling and wide, coun- 
teract the effect of the long, thin face. Do you see 




Fig. 138. — One can select a 
hat which will make a good 
silhouette when one sees the 
whole figure before a mirror. 



266 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

how very important it is to study the face and its 
lines ? 

The way of dressing one's hair may make it difficult 
to choose a hat. If the person with the long, thin face 
also draws back her hair sharply at the sides, her face 
will look longer and it will be more difficult to choose 
a hat for such a face. If the hair is worn very fluffy 
when one has a very round, full face, then the face is apt 
to look fuller. So you see hairdressing is very impor- 
tant to study too, if a girl is to look her best and choose 
the most becoming hats. 

Color, too, should be kept in mind. Some skins are 
pale ; others are rosy. Black makes the complexion 
look white and should not be worn next to a dark, 
swarthy skin. Browns are apt to look well with auburn 
hair like Jane Alden's. She has such a clear complexion. 
Barbara's mother, Mrs. Oakes, with gray eyes and 
hair, will look well in gray. 

We have studied about contrasting colors. The 
contrasting colors for a person with light hair will 
be quite different from the colors for 'a person with 
auburn hair. Notice what is said in the lesson about 
color in selection of dress. This is true of hats too. 

Select a hat that is becoming. In choosing hats aim 
always to get what is becoming to you and your style 
rather than the extremes of fashion. The latest styles 
can always be adapted to suit your style if a milliner 
knows her business. 

Remember that very often hats are not becoming be- 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 267 

cause they are not worn properly. Sometimes the wearer 
forgets and pushes the hat back or to one side ; and then 
its lines do not conform to the outline of hair and head 
and face. Study how to wear your hats. Large hats 
are often difficult to wear because of correct balance. 





Which way looks better ? 



If you would like to try to make a simple summer hat, 
perhaps you can buy a frame, and with your teacher's 
help learn to change and adapt it to your face. It is 
easy to learn to sew straw on a frame and to trim with 
a bow or flowers. Simple trimming for young girls is 
always the most pleasing ; flowers, wings, quills, and 
simple bows are the most suitable. 



268 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



EXERCISES AND FROBLEMS 

1. What things will you have in mind when you go to the mil- 
liner's to select a new hat, or to have your old hat remodeled ? 
Write a list of the principal points to be kept in mind in choosing. 

2. Bring to school pictures of hats adapted to faces ; some that 
are not. You can find these in old fashion magazines; perhaps in 
old portraits. Pin them on your classroom Bulletin Board. Criti- 
cize. Your teacher will probably have some too. Why is this a 
good subject to study ? 



Lesson 4 



MAKING THE MIDDY BLOUSE 

The Pleasant Valley girls will make middy blouses and so 
complete their gymnasium suits. Will you not wish to complete 
your suits too ? 

The girls have found their bloomers and skirts very useful, and 
are glad to make the middy blouse too. They will use the same 
material as for the skirt. 

By this time the Pleasant Valley girls are so expert 
that they make no mistakes in laying on their patterns 
or in cutting out garments. They are very particular to 
have the long line of single perforations indicating the 
length lying exactly on the warp threads of the cloth. 
Jane Smith says she can tell exactly which pieces must 
be cut double on a fold of the goods. Can you ? The 
girls sent for patterns for 34 bust measure and for 38. 
Some of the girls are quite large for their age — Jane 
Andrews and Barbara both are large and will need the 
38 size. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 269 

Miss James opened a pattern and held up all the 
pieces. She pinned them to the dress form so as to 
show the relationship of each piece to the figure. Can 
you do this, too, before you begin to cut, and so learn 
which pieces are to be cut on a fold ? Then lay the pat- 
tern on your cloth most carefully and pin ready for cut- 
ting. Do not cut until your teacher says you may. 
Learn to use a tracing wheel and trace your seams, 
so all will match in putting the middy together. This 
garment will be made entirely by machine, except 
the hand processes of basting and gathering. Hems 
and facings should be carefully basted before being 
stitched. Good, perfect stitching improves all such 
tailored garments. Poor stitching spoils the effect. 

How to make a middy blouse. After the pattern has 
been carefully laid on, and the material cut out, this is 
the way to make and finish a middy blouse : 

1. Baste, with the seams on the outside, shoulder, and under- 
arm seams. Try on. If necessary in order to fit more smoothly 
across the chest, let the front drop ; if extra fullness across the 
chest is desired, let out under the arms. The shoulder seams will 
be finished, but not the underarm. Mark with tracing or pencil 
the new seam for underarm if you must change it. 

Make a flat fell seam at the shoulder, J inch wide finished. 
You have all learned how. 

2. The sleeves, which are in one piece, are put in next, before the 
sleeves or underarms are seamed. Match the notches, gather the 
sleeves if there is any fullness at armhole, and baste in the sleeves 
so that the seam is on the right side. Make flat fells, basting the 
turn which falls over the sleeves so that it will lie very flat. 



270 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



3. Baste seams of sleeve and underarm all in one long seam 
on right side. Match at armhole. Make flat fell, turning the fell 
towards the front (see page 216). 

4. Hem the bottom of the middy with one inch hem. 

5. Finish the neck next. Prepare the collar with its facing 
according to the notches of the pattern and directions. Sew; 
turn to right side. If the collar is to be decorated with finishing 
braid, this decorating should be done before the collar and facing 
are sewed together. Attach collar to middy, right of center collar 
to right of the center back of middy. The seam will then fall on the 
inside towards the neck and will be concealed by the facing which 
should be turned in and sewed over the seam. Patterns for middies 
vary, and other methods of attaching collar may be suggested. 
A loose ribbon or scarf of silk can be tied under the collar to form a 
sailor's knot. 

6. Then finish the sleeve. The sleeve may be finished with a half 
inch hem and rolled as many are worn, or a cufF can be attached 
which will be of the same width as the sleeve or just to fit the wrist. 
In the latter case, the fullness of the sleeve must be gathered to fit. 

The girls of Pleasant Valley School made sleeves of 
three quarter length, and attached 
a turned-up cuff of same width as 
sleeve. This cuff was made double : 
the two pieces sewed together, 
turned, and attached to the sleeve 
with the seam, on the outside of 
sleeve. The facing, then, concealed 
the seam and, when the cuff was 
Fig. 140. — Eyelets were turned up, was entirely concealed. 

made by some girls in f^g m akeS a very neat fi n i s h inside 

the tront or their middy J 

waists. the sleeve. 




CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 271 

Some of the girls, those who worked rapidly, made 
eyelets at the front of the middy and laced the middy. 
Eyelets are punched with a stiletto or sharp point, and 
are worked like a buttonhole, only perfectly round. 

The girls of Pleasant Valley will give an entertain- 
ment of calisthenic exercises as soon as their middy 
suits are entirely completed. The boys will also give 
some exercises with the dumbbells and join in the folk 
dancing. " The Pleasant Valley News " has already an- 
nounced this entertainment at the Town Hall. Every 
body in Pleasant Valley is going The money will be 
used to pay for some of the furnishings of the Ellen H. 
Richards House. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Draw a sketch of your middy blouse. How will yours differ 
from the one in the picture ? 

2. Try to make another middy at home. 

> 

Lesson 5 

suggestions for buying garments of wool and silk 

Miss Travers from the State College talks to the girls of Pleasant 
Valley School about buying clothing, especially of wool or silk. 
You, too, will wish to know what Miss Travers said. 

Have you ever considered whether it is wise or not 
to buy your clothing ready-made ? Most of the mothers 
of the Pleasant Valley girls make the garments at home 
with some assistance from the visiting dressmaker. 



272 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

What a help the Pleasant Valley girls will be when the 
dressmaker comes to their homes. They are not old 
enough to take full responsibility, but they will surely 
be able to assist after the dressmaker has planned. 
This will help their mothers, too. Mrs. Allen, Mrs. 
Stark, and Mrs. Oakes have already discovered how 
many good suggestions their daughters have to give. 

It is sometimes wise to buy things ready-made. In 
our grandmothers' day this was impossible. Grand- 
mother Stark used to stitch all Grandfather Stark's 
shirts by hand and make his overalls. To-day one can 
buy good serviceable garments like overalls, rompers, 
shirts, etc., at moderate prices, ready-made. Just 
what should be made at home should be determined 
by the mother, and will depend on her time and duties 
at home. Some mothers can so organize their house- 
hold work that they have time for some sewing too, and 
they enjoy the change of work. It pays to make 
certain garments because the workmanship is often 
better and one can choose one's own materials. This 
means that the life of the garment is apt to be longer. 
This is economy if one has the time and strength ; but 
it never pays if one sacrifices other things like fresh air, 
exercise, some relaxation, for the sake of saving a little 
money. 

What should you consider in buying ready-made 
garments? Miss Travers says it never pays to buy 
flimsy materials, cheap lace edging, or insertions which 
are poorly put together and will tear. One can instead 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 273 

purchase ready-made garments which are plain. It is 
not always possible to afford the time to make dainty, 
fine, hand-made underwear, which soon wears out ; 
but one can often spare the time to construct a few 
pairs of more durable drawers, and corset covers, by 
machine for everyday wear, when one realizes how 
much greater will be the life of the garment. 

If one is buying ready-made garments, one should 
think about the following things : 

1. Is the material suitable ? will it wear well ? is the 
color suitable or will it fade very soon ? 

2. Consider the workmanship. Are the seams well 
sewed ? Is the stitching very coarse, or does the gar- 
ment look well finished ? Is the appearance neat, or 
will it pull apart very soon ? 

3. The construction should be examined. Is the gar- 
ment well cut, or is it cheap because it is scant in full- 
ness ? This may not permit of freedom in movement, 
and the garment may have to be cast aside because un- 
comfortable. Then money is wasted. 

4. It never pays to buy anything which one does not 
need. It is well to have foresight and to plan for what 
one will need for the year, but experience soon teaches 
one the quantity. It is foolish to buy unnecessary 
things because they are pretty. One should learn not 
to be tempted. 

5. It sometimes pays to wait until certain seasons 
for purchasing garments. Between seasons one can 
get well-made articles of clothing at considerable 



274 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

reduction, if one can wait. Winter garments are reduced 
in January or February, and summer goods in July or 
August. It often pays to wait. In planning one's 
wardrobe, one can think about this. January is often 
a good time to buy household linens or other furnish- 
ings at a reduction. 

6. The use of garments should guide one in making 
a selection. It is necessary to study one's whole ward- 
robe and to know what is needed. A girl engaged in 
business will need an entirely different wardrobe from 
one who spends most of her time at home helping 
mother. The first step, then, in economy is to know 
one's needs and to purchase accordingly. Is the gar- 
ment needed and suitable for the occasion ? Remember 
about appropriateness, and buy garments which will 
render the service needed. One does not wear silk 
dresses for housework. 

7. Sometimes undergarments are made in sweat- 
shops under very undesirable conditions for health. 
The garments are cheap because made by poorly paid 
workers under very unsanitary conditions. Do you 
wish to wear such garments ? As long as women buy 
the cheap kind made at the sacrifice of human life, this 
sweatshop system will continue. One can buy inex- 
pensive underwear made under sanitary conditions. It 
is labeled with a tag of the Consumers' League. This 
is an organization which is trying to better the condi- 
tions in workrooms and shops in which clothing is made 
and to improve wages and working hours. This League 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 



275 



permits the use of its label on white underwear made 
under the conditions they approve of : no work outside 
of factories, no child labor under sixteen years of age, 
and obedience to the state labor laws. The labels 
are used by firms agreeing to fulfill the above require- 
ments. If you are purchasing underwear, perhaps 
you can buy some with the Consumers' League label. 
It looks like this (Fig. 141). Miss James wears this 




CONSUMERS' LEAGUE LABEL 



GO 
CJ1 


ISSVEDOTAOTHMITTOP Tl-|_ 



UNION LABEL 



Fig. 141. — Consumers' League Label and Union Label. 



kind, and Mrs. Oakes and Mrs. Allen, too, now that 
they know about it. 

8. It is sometimes more economical to decide on a 
particular color for a season. One can, as a rule, wear 
one's clothes to more economical advantage and look 
better dressed by choosing a particular color than if 
one has a red dress, a blue coat, and a green dress for 
best. The coat is probably worn with both dresses 
and may not look well. 

9. Remember, if _ one has only a limited amount of 
money for clothes," one should not try to buy the very 
latest fashions. Exaggerated styles live but a short 
time, and some of us must wear our clothes for a long 



276 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



time, until they are worn out. If materials are good, 
one can often have one's clothes remade, by combina- 
tion with a little new material of a contrasting kind. 
A knowledge of textile materials and values will always 
help in selecting either ready-made clothing or materials. 
10. Remember you must know about the things you 
wish to purchase. Clerks as a rule know very little 




Fig. 142. — It takes much thought to learn to buy intelligently. 

about the goods they sell. If you know, you can make 
the dollars earned buy more than if you were ignorant. 

What should you think about in buying materials? 
Here are some of the hints for purchasing wool and 
silk materials or garments which Miss Travers gave the 
Pleasant Valley girls. Talk them over with your 
teacher. See if you agree. 

1. Garments made of wool and cotton mixed do not 
keep their shape as well as all wool. If one can afford 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 277 

only wool and cotton, the salesman should tell one 
in purchasing about their composition. The mixture 
should be cheaper. It is often sold for all wool at a 
higher price. If one untwists the fibers of the material, 
it is possible to detect cotton. Try at school on some 
ravelings of garment seams or other materials. The 
burning test will help one to decide. We shall learn 
some tests in our next lesson. 

2. Remember wool is an expensive fiber. Do not 
expect to get all wool for little money. 

3. Remember the weave affects wearing quality. 
A close twill weave is often more durable than a basket 
weave. 

Do you remember your lessons about silk ; how it is 
grown and made by the little worm, and how it is 
manufactured or spun into thread or woven into silk 
cloth ? In buying silk one must remember about its 
manufacture. 

1. Silk is seldom pure. It is apt to be weighted. 
If the silk feels heavy in the hand, it does not always 
mean that it is a good piece of material and will wear ; 
it may be weighted with tin ; up to 30 per cent of tin 
is not harmful. A softer, pliable silk is not apt to 
be so weighted, and will wear better. Soft silks so 
woven as to pull at the seams are not economical. 
Close weaves are better than loosely woven ones for 
wearing. 

2. Fray some of the threads of the cloth you wish 
to buy. Is it possible to break either the warp or woof 



278 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

easily ? If so, the silk will split along either warp or 
filling and will not wear. 

3. One should not expect to get bargains in silk. 
Cheap silk will not wear. It is better to wear some 
other material. Is the material made of reeled silk 
or of spun silk ? You have learned the difference. 
Articles made of reeled silk are more expensive. 

4. Silk is sometimes adulterated with cotton or 
artificial silk and sold for all silk. We shall learn some 
tests in our next lesson so we may discover too. 

Miss James talked over all these points with the 
Pleasant Valley girls and showed them some good and 
bad materials. The girls decided to be on the lookout 
for these things. Will you ? 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Bring to school garments or materials which have not worn 
well. Try to find out why. Your teacher will help. 

2. Write a composition about things to think about in purchas- 
ing a new winter suit ready-made. If you must buy from a cata- 
logue, can you judge about the wearing qualities ? 

Lesson 6 

learning to use some simple textile tests 

Miss James and the girls of Pleasant Valley tried some simple 
tests for materials. Perhaps you would like to try them too ? 

The Pleasant Valley girls became so interested in 
Miss Travers' talk about textiles and how difficult it is 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 279 

to buy intelligently that they decided to learn to judge 
materials and to study about adulterations. 

How are clothing materials adulterated ? Miss 
James told the girls that there are a number of ways of 
adulterating materials, and that most women shoppers 
are so indifferent that manufacturers have been able 
to adulterate the materials of everyday use. This 
increases the cost of living, for materials do not wear so 
long. Miss James says that textiles should be labeled 
so we may know what we are buying. Some kind 
of adulterations are honest if the goods are so marked ; 
but, when sold for something they are not, the buyers 
are fooled. The tests help one to know whether materi- 
als are adulterated or not. Let us learn first some of 
the methods generally used in adulterating, and then 
some of the simple tests. 

Weighting is one method of adulterating. This means 
that something else has been used beside the material. 
In cotton and linen material, sizing or starch is pressed 
in with the rolling in finishing. After washing, this 
material will be found to be very open in mesh instead 
of smooth. Notice some of the smooth linen table 
cloths before they are laundered. Afterwards you will 
notice they look quite coarse and have lost their smooth- 
ness. Sometimes glue or clay or gums are used instead 
of starch. 

Silk is often weighted in the finishing process with 
sugar and some with dyes and metals. This is because 
silk has a property which enables it to absorb a great 



28o 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 



deal of moisture without changing its quality. The 
manufacturer can buy salts and dyes for less than silk, 
and so he often uses a large per cent of dye or metal in 
place of the gum washed out of the silk in manufacture. 
One can seldom find to-day silks like our grandmothers 
used to use. This is because people 
wish cheap silks ; the manufacturer can- 
not produce silks for little money, as the 
raw fiber is so high ; and so he uses 
other things with silk to weight it. 

Materials are also adulterated by 
combination with other materials. Did 
you ever buy a handkerchief marked 
" pure linen " and discover it was a 
mixture of cotton and linen ? Cotton 
is also used to adulterate woolen mate- 
rials, and sometimes silk materials ; 
" pure silk " so called, is often artificial 
silk. 

Adulteration is also practiced when 
One can made-over materials or waste is used 
to cheapen the cost. We learned about 
this in studying about wool. Wool 
materials should be labeled so that the purchaser will 
know. It is not fair to pay the price for an all-new 
wool material if shoddy and mungo and flocks, which 
are all old wool and waste, have been used. The 
per cent of new wool should be told and the price made 
accordingly. 




Fig. 143 

sometimes test ma- 
terials by burning. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 281 



Silk is sometimes sold as reeled silk when waste from 
cocoons which is called spun silk has been used for the 
woof or filling thread. 

In finishing of materials, adulteration is sometimes 
practiced. In press- 
ing cotton or linen, a 
luster is given to the 
surface. Cotton can 
be made to appear 
like silk or like linen, 
and is often sold for 
those fibers. Cotton 
can be napped in fin- 
ishing and made to 
look woolly as in 
blankets or outing 
flannel, but it is still 
only cotton. 

How can clothing 
material be tested ? 
These are the sim- 
ple tests which the 
Pleasant Valley girls 
learned : 

For sizing. This is 
easy to identify. Pick at the surface with your nail, 
and the starch or sizing will easily come off. Hang 
a wet piece in the air and see how the gloss looks 
then. This sizing often conceals defects in the cloth. 




Fig. 144. — The microscope reveals many things. 



282 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 







Fig. 145. — The test for fading 



more slowly. When 
heavily weighted, the flame 
does not burn readily and 
the form of the silk will 
remain. The vegetable 
fibers, cotton and linen, 
burn quickly and with a 
flame. 

Tests with microscope. 
You have all seen the ap- 
pearance of the fibers under 
the microscope. This re- 
veals many things, and the 



These can be seen if the mate- 
rial is thin, by holding it 
against the light. 

Burning tests. The girls 
unraveled the fibers which 
Miss James gave them and 
tested wool, silk, cotton, and 
linen. They tried both warp 
and filling threads. They 
burned them with a taper. 
The animal threads (which 
are they ?) burned slowly, 
charred, and smelled like 
burned feathers. Silk burns 
to an ash, except when 
weighted. Then it burns 
very 









s% 




























__ 
































m 






1 


S*m 


m 


— 


-^fe 




























1 






















,. 





= = =y^ 














m m 




—" 




:: 





Fig. 146. — The test for shrinkage. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 283 

unraveled fibers are easily identified. The microscope 
is the only sure test for telling cotton and linen fibers. 
One can sometimes discover shoddy mixed with the all- 
wool fiber because of the color. Shoddy is sometimes 
made of old colored woolen rags. 

Tests for fading. Pin a piece of cloth on a board 
with thumb tacks. Cover half with cardboard or 
heavy paper. Expose to the rays of sun for several 
days. Remove paper and notice difference. A piece 
can also be exposed near bright light, but not in sun's 
rays, to see the effect under 
.ordinary wear. Marjorie Allen 
tested a piece of cashmere she 
was considering for a dress and 
decided not to buy it, for it 
faded quickly near the bright 

lirrht ^ IG ' l ^' — ^ e test ^ or strength- 

Tests for strength. Try to break either warp or woof 
threads. Place the two thumbs together and press 
down on the cloth which should be held firmly in the 
hands. Try both sets of threads. Sometimes a weak 
warp or woof can be discovered. 

Tests for shrinkage. Barbara Oakes had a white cot- 
ton dress last year which never seemed to stop shrinking. 
Sometimes we can test materials for shrinkage. Measure 
width and length of sample to be tested. Wash it in 
hot water and soap. Dry and measure again. Is it nar- 
rower and shorter ? In planning for cotton or woolen 
garments allowance should be made for shrinkage. 




284 



CLOTHING AND HEALTH 




Chemical tests. Chemicals are used for identifying 
fibers. Have you learned in your eighth grade studies 
about acids and alkalies ? Have you studied at all 
about chemicals ? It is possible to discover the compo- 
sition of woven materials 
by testing them with chemi- 
cals. This is because acids 
and alkalies affect vege- 
table and animal fibers in 
different ways. Look up 
the difference between acids 
and alkalies. Study with 
your teacher and try to dis- 
cover some of the common 
food and cleaning materials 
which we use every day in 
our homes which are acid or 
alkali. Some of these teach us we should know what 
the soaps and washing powders which we use will do to 
our clothes. Your teacher will provide some chemicals 
for testing. It is easier to test samples of cloth if they 
are fringed at the edges. Here are directions for some 
chemical tests : 

1. Place a piece of white cotton cloth and a piece of woolen 
material in small dishes. Cover with 50 per cent solution of nitric 
acid. The wool fibers will turn yellow. The cotton remain white. 
If a piece of wool cloth was mixed with cotton, how would the 
test prove it ? 

2. Boil samples of cotton and wool together ; then samples of 
cotton and silk together, for fifteen minutes in a 5 per cent solution 



Fig. 148. — The chemical tests show 
many things of use in judging mate- 
rials. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 285 

of caustic potash. The animal fibers will dissolve, the cotton will 
remain. Of what use would this test be ? 

3. Moisten samples of cotton and of wool with Millon's reagent. 
Place in porcelain dishes and heat gently. The animal fibers will 
become red ; the vegetable are unchanged. 

4. Material made of cotton and linen and sold for all linen 
can be tested. Place fringed sample in a porcelain dish. Heat 
gently in 50 per cent solution of caustic potash for two minutes. 
Remove with glass rod and dry between blotting papers. The linen 
will be dark yellow in color and the cotton white or light yellow. 

So we have learned a few tests of different kinds. 
There are many more. When you go to high school 
you can learn about others. The Pleasant Valley girls 
enjoyed making these tests with Miss James' help. 
Perhaps you may be able to try them with your teacher. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

i. Try the above chemical tests with your teacher's help. 

2. Try some of the other tests for adulterations. 

3. Tell four ways in which materials are adulterated. 

Lesson 7 

how pattern is made in cloth 

Barbara said she never could quite see how pattern is made in 
cloth. There seem to be so many different kinds of patterns. 
Miss James explained about this. She said there are several ways 
of making patterns. Some are printed ; others woven ; some 
embroidered. Have you discovered this ? 

Patterns are often woven. Do you remember, when 
you studied about linen, you learned that the Jacquard 



286 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

loom has a series of cards above it which are able to 
control the pattern ? Wonderful silks and beautiful 
velvets and brocades as well as damask table linen 
are made in this way by weaving. Patterns of stripes 
and plaids are also made by the loom in weaving. 
Sometimes the warp or the filling threads are colored ; 
and this color forms patterns in stripes or squares. See 
if you have any pieces in your surprise box in which 
pattern is made by colored threads of warp or woof. 

Try to find some woven patterns made by the Jac- 
quard loom in silk or linen. Think of all the beautiful 
ribbons, silks, tablecloth damasks, towels, and nap- 
kins ; all such patterns are woven by the loom. Plain 
patterns like basket weave, twill, diagonal, satin weave, 
are also made by weaving. See if you can work out 
some of these patterns on your school loom. 

Some patterns are printed. On the plain woven 
material, patterns are printed by means of rollers on 
which the pattern has been stamped. The colors are 
put on by this roller. The picture shows the machine. 
Did you ever have a calico apron or dress of percale 
or cambric on which the pattern showed on one side 
only ? Many ribbons are printed with a pattern, but 
sometimes patterns are put on both sides of the cloth. 
Again, printing is sometimes done on the warp threads 
before the filling thread is woven in. This makes a 
dull effect in pattern. Miss James had a piece of ribbon 
which was so printed. When it was ravelled out a 
little, the printed warp could be seen. 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 287 

Did you ever see a foulard silk dress with white spots ? 
Do you know how they are made ? There are two 




Courtesy of Cheney Bros. 
Fig. 149. — Printing cloth by machinery. 

methods. One is called " resist," and the other " dis- 
charge." The first method, " resist," is easy to under- 



288 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

stand. The material is printed before it is dyed. The 
spots are printed with a chemical which resists the dye 
when it is put in the dye bath. So the cloth comes out 
of the dye with white spots where the chemical was 
stamped. The " discharge " method is just the opposite. 
The cloth is dyed blue or black or whatever the color 
is to be, and then it is passed between rollers something 
like your wringing machine and the color is taken out in 
spots by chemicals. Sometimes, when the chemicals 
are too strong or cheap, they eat the cloth. Jane Al- 
den's cousin had a dress from which the white spots 
fell out, leaving holes. 

Patterns are sometimes printed on cloth by means 
of wood blocks or stencils. Perhaps you can do some 
printing on plain cloth. You can make a stencil pat- 
tern. Cut out the design in it and paint through the 
holes, or cut a design from a piece of wood, dip it in 
color, and print the cloth. Lovely materials are made 
by hand in this way. Miss James has a beautiful 
English piece of Morris block printing which she values 
highly. 

Many patterns are embroidered. Look in the piece 
box. Sometimes embroidered designs are worked on 
cloth by hand, but many are made by machine. Miss 
James has a scarf which came from India. It is em- 
broidered in gold with little bits of glass sewed on the 
right side, and held by the embroidery. This is all 
hand work. Miss James has a waist with little spots 
of white embroidered in silk. This is done by machine 



CHOOSING AND WEARING CLOTHES 289 

on a loom. Find some piece of material embroidered 
by machine. 

So Barbara Oakes now understands about the pat- 
terns. Miss James had some books to show the girls, 
too. They looked up in the encyclopedia about print- 
ing of materials and about the other things they wished 
to know about patterns. Barbara says to her the most 
wonderful thing is the way in which the warp threads 
of the loom can be controlled by the Jacquard pattern 
cards and other devices. The shed of the warp as it 
is raised for each filling thread is governed by the de- 
vices, and a different set of threads bobs up for each 
shuttle throw. 

EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

1. Mount on strips of cardboard, samples of material made: 

a. By weaving, plain, stripes, diagonal, etc. 

b. By printing, resist, discharge, machine, block, stencil; 

c. By embroidery. 

2. Look up in the encyclopedia or other books the subject of 
cotton printing. 

3. Try to find pictures of modern looms and more primitive 
ones in which pattern is controlled by the harness which raises the 
warp threads and makes the so-called shed. 

REVIEW PROBLEMS 

I. Look over the fashion pages of your magazines at home and 
find : 

1. A young woman suitably dressed for business. 

2. A girl dressed for outdoor sports. 

3. A girl in a party gown. 

Tell why you think each is "well dressed.'' If not, why ? 
u 



290 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

II. What textile tests would you suggest when buying a silk 
dress. Mrs. Stark expects to have one next summer. How will 
she be able to judge if it will wear ? 

III. Can you make another middy at home. Perhaps you 
are so expert you can take an order for one. 



THE ELLEN H. RICHARDS HOUSE 

You will be glad to know that all the townspeople 
in Pleasant Valley were delighted with the year's work 
in homemaking in the new schoolhouse. Mr. Roberts, 




Fig. 150. 



Courtesy of Mr. R.J. Planten. 
The Ellen H. Richards house. 



the President of the Pleasant Valley Bank, was so 
pleased with the results both at school and in the 
homes of the valley that he gave the house that you see 

291 



292 CLOTHING AND HEALTH 

in the picture (Fig. 150), to be used for homemaking 
work by the girls, and for the boys' clubs as well. The 
house was named for Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, the 
great and good woman who lived in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, but whose friends are found all over the world, 
and who helped to develop the teaching of home eco- 
nomics everywhere. 

What are some of the facts about clothing and health 
that a girl may learn, useful to herself and her family? 
This is the question at the beginning of the first chapter. 
Do you not think that you can all give an answer to 
this question now ? And would you not like to write a 
composition about it ? Perhaps your teacher will have 
a gathering at the school of all the fathers and mothers ; 
and maybe one of you can write a little play or pageant 
connected in some way with household arts for this 
closing party of the school year. Perhaps you are able 
now to design your costumes and make some of your 
garments or, at least, to select them more wisely. 

And where is Pleasant Valley ? Perhaps you asked 
this question when you looked at the picture on one of 
the first pages. Pleasant Valley is your own home 
town ; and, though it has really quite another name, 
it may still be Pleasant Rivers, or Pleasant Hill, or 
Pleasant Fields, or Pleasant Plain. Why not ? In 
this wide country of ours there are many forms of natu- 
ral beauty ; and even in the dry sections, where trees 
are grown with difficulty, there are still the far reaches 
of the plains and the beautiful effects of cloud, sunrise, 



THE ELLEN H. RICHARDS HOUSE 293 

and sunset. If our own town is ugly and unhealthy, 
it is not Nature's fault ; for the beauty and home- 
likeness and the healthfulness of any place depend upon 
its inhabitants. Even the simplest and plainest village 
or countryside has one kind of beauty if it is kept per- 
fectly clean, and it costs but little money in many places 
to plant trees and shrubs and keep the grass green. 

You must see, however, that it is something more 
than beauty in the things about us that we have been 
studying together. You boys and girls in your school 
are to be the men and women who will make the homes 
and the town the best possible places for successful 
and happy living. Do you realize what it means to be 
citizens of a great commonwealth like this of our United 
States ? Do you understand the meaning of the word 
u commonwealth " ? It is a good old word that means 
a land where all the people share everything alike and 
work together for the good of all. We cannot succeed 
in doing this unless we begin in our home and in our 
home town. More and more must our country stand 
for democracy for ourselves and for the whole world, 
and you must bring to the problems of the future, bodies 
strong and clean, and strong hearts and minds. 



INDEX 



Adulteration : 

by combination, 280. 

by weighting, 279. 

in finishing, 281. 
Albatross, 210 . 
Alpaca, 213. 
Ammonium phosphate for outing flannel 

9- 
Aniline dyes, 134. 
Apparel : 

choosing, 242. 
Apron : 

attaching the yoke, 37-39. 

basting skirt part, 33. 

cutting skirt part, 3 p. 

cutting yoke part, 33. 

gathering top of, 36. 

hemming sides and bottom, 36. 

material for, 7. 

planning pattern for yoke, 32. 

planning to make, 31-33. 

sewing seams of, 34-36. 

the sewing, 127, 128. 

useful, 129. 
"Artistic appreciation" in dress, 254-255 
Attaching an apron yoke, 38. 

Basting : 

corset cover, 106. 

gores of petticoat, 104. 

hemmed patch, 173. 

skirt of apron, 33. 

stitch, 20. 
Bathing, 91. 
Bean bags, making, 29. 
Bean bag board, 29. 



Bean bag game, 29, 30. 

Bias bands, to finish, 99. 

Bias strip, cutting and placing, 24-25. 

Birdseye, 62, 183. 

Blankets, 214. 

Blanket stitch : 

how to make, 138. 

uses of, 44, 138, 141. 
Bleaching linen cloth, 195. 
Bloomers : 

bands for, 217. 

making, 215-217. 

material to use for, 202. 

pattern for, 201. 
Bluing, 190. 
Bobbin, 67, 68. 
Boiling linen, 190. 
Brilliantine, 213. 
Broadcloth, 211. 
Brocaded satin, 124. 
Brushing clothes, 157. 
Bunting, 213, 

Butchers' linen, 183. , 

Button, sewing on, 45. 
Buttonhole : 

fan and bar ends, 43. 

finishing, 44. 

overcasting, 41, 42. 

placing, 40. 

practice in making, 39. 

stitch, 42, 43. 

turning corner, 43. 
Buying : 

garments, 271-278. 

materials, 276-278. 

points about, 197-199. 

295 



296 



INDEX 



Calico, 7. 
Cambric, 60. 
Canton flannel, 8. 
Carding : 

by hand, 76-77. 

cotton, 72, 74. 

wool, 222-224. 
Caring for clothes, 155-174. 
Carpets, 214. 
Cashmere, 210. 

Catch stitch, how to make, 150-152. 
Chain stitch, 119. 
Challis, 210. 
Chambray, 7. 
Cheesecloth, use of, 9. 
Cheviot, 209. 
Chiffon, 125. 
China silk, 125. 
Chintz, use of, 9. 
Cleanliness of body, 89-92. 
Cloth : 

how made, 74-76, 132-137, 191-196, 
218-224. 

how pattern is made in, 285. 
Clothes : 

appropriate, 251. 

brushing, 157. 

care of, 155-163. 

choosing and wearing, 249, 250. 

removing stains and spots from, 158. 

things to learn about caring for, 156. 

why important, 3. 
Clothespin bag, 149-152. 
Clothing : 

budget, 230-236. 

color for, 256-259. 

expense of for a year, 230. 

for body at night, 89-92. 

helps save body heat, 91. 

important things about wearing, 242. 

night, aired during day, 90. 

points about buying, 229. 

ready-made, 271-272. 

relation to health, 240-248. 

selecting healthful, 244. 



Clothing (Continued) 

several layers of, warmer than one 
thick layer, 92. 

things to think about in choosing, 242. 

what to do with, at night, 89. 

what to remember, in purchasing wool, 
224-229. 

why air at night, 89. 

why changed at night, 90-92. 

why we wear, 241. 
Clothing budget, 230-236. 
Cluny lace, 93. 

Cocoons, grown for silk, 109-114. 
Colored silks, 133. 
Colors : 

choice of, 256-260. 

for clothing, 256. 

for a hat, 266. 

"grayed," 256-257. 

intensity of, 257. 

learning to combine, 259-260. 

to bring out one's characteristics, 
256-258. 
Commercial pattern, how to use, 46-53. 
Consumer's League, 275. 
Corsets, 245. 
Corset cover : 

how to make, 106. 

material for, 106. 

nainsook for, 105. 
Corticelli cocoons, 113. 
Costume : 

a background, 253. 

a work of art, 252. 

artistic, 254-255. 

studying lines of, 261. 
Cotton : 

baled and shipped, 16. 

carding, 72, 74. 

fibers, 7, 14. 

how grown, 12. 

how spun, 74, 75. 

loom for weaving, 66. 

picking, 13. 

seeds taken from fiber, 1 



INDEX 



297 



Cotton {Continued) 

spinning, 72-77. 

use of, 65. 

use of seeds, 15. 

varieties of, 17. 

weaving, 66-71. 

where grown, 11-12. 
Cotton cloth, how woven, 66-71. 
Cotton crepe, 60. 
Cotton fibers, magnified, 14. 
Cotton flannel, varieties of, 8. 
Cotton ginning, 15. 
Cotton materials, 7-10, 59-62, 101. 
Cotton plant, 12. 
Cousin Ann : 

her clothes budget, 230-236. 

how she cares for her clothes, 156-163, 
249. 

what she learned about dress, 251- 
256. 

what she told about silk, 133-137. 
Covert cloth, 211. 
Crepe de Chine, 123. 
Cretonne, use of, 9. 
Crinoline, use of, 9. 
Cross-stitch : 

design for, 144. 

gifts made from, 146. 

how to make, 144,145. 

use of, 143-146. 

Damask, 183. 

Darning, straight tears, 163-166. 

Darning stitch : 

for stockings, 167-169. 

for straight tears, 163, 166. 

how made, 152-153. 

where to use, 166. 
Decorating, stitches used for, 118-121. 

(See also Embroidery stitches.) 
Denims, 8, 10. 
Dimity, 60. 
Dress : 

artistic appreciation in, 254-255. 

colors for, 258. 



Dress (Continued) 

personal characteristics in relation to, 
256-257. 

spacing and arrangement of lines, 255. 

use of colors, 255. 
Dress Skirt : 

laying and cutting pattern, 238. 

making, 238-239. 

pattern for, 236-238. 
Duck, 61. 
Dyeing silk, I34"I3S- 

Ellen H. Richards House, 291. 
Embroidery stitches : 

blanket stitch, 138-141. 

catch stitch, 150-152. 

chain stitch, 119. 

cross-stitch, 143-146. 

featherstitch, 119, 120, 129, 130. 

outline stitch, 121. 
Embroidered patterns, 288. 
Etamine, 213. 
Eyelets, 270. 

Factory, silk, 137. 
Featherstitch : 

how made, 119, 120. 

use for, 129, 130. 
Felt, 212. 
Fibers : 

cotton, 7, 14. 

flax, 180. 

silk, in, 132. 

wool, 205-207, 226. 
Filling thread, 66. 
Flannel, 212. 
Flat felled seam, 216. 
Flax: 

breaking, 179. 

combing and spinning, 191. 

cultivation an ancient industry, 180-" 
181. 

fiber, 6, 180. 

hackling, 193. 

how grown, 176. 



298 



INDEX 



Flax : (Continued) 

rippling and retting, 177-179. 

rippling by hand, 178. 

rovings, 193. 

seeds, 184. 

what is the, plant, 175. 

wheel, 76, 192. 

where grown, 175. 
Flocks, 228. 

Folding table linen, 190. 
Foulard silk, 123. 
Free-hand pattern, 46. 
French seam : 

how to make, 87-88. 

use of, 86-88. 

Galatea, 62. 
Garments : 

buying, 271, 278. 

criticize your own, 251. 

points to consider in buying ready- 
made, 272-276. 
Gauge, for hem, 36. 
"German Val," 94-97. 
Gifts : 

aprons, 129. 

bag, 127. 

clothespin bag, 149-152. 

darning-case, 117. 

guest towel, 146. 

needle book, 117. 

pin-case, 116, 117. 

sewing apron, 127. 

sewing-case, 118. 

spool-case, 117. 

useful cases, 130. 
Gingham, 7, 10. 
Grenadine, 213. 
Guest towel, 146. 

Hair, care of, 262-264. 
Hamburg edging, 101, 103. 
Handkerchief, linen, 182. 
Handmade garments, 57-58. 
Hanging table linen, 190. 



Hat 

becoming, 266-267. 

color, 266. 

how to wear, 267. 

selecting, 262. 

shape and lines of, 264-265. 

trimming for, 267. 
Health : 

clothing in relation to, 240-248. 

underwear effects, 245-247. 
Heels, 162. 
Hem : 

gauge for, 36. 

making on nightdress, 88. 

turning around neck of nightdress, 98. 
Hemmed patch, how to make, 171, 174. 
Hemming stitch : 

for hemmed patch, 171. 

how made, 19-22. 

why useful, 19. 
Hemstitch : 

different from hemming stitch, 147. 

how to make, 147-148. 
Henrietta, 210. 
Herringbone stitch, 150. 
Herringbone weave, 149. 
Holder : 

finishing, 27. 

planning, cutting, and basting, 24. 
Homespun, 210. 
Huckaback, 62, 183. 

Indian head, 61. 
Ironing, 189, 190. 

Jacquard Loom, 124. 
Javelle water, 187. 

Kimono night dress, 64. 
Knitting machine, 167. 

Lace : 

cluny, 93. 

German Val, 94, 96. 

kinds of, 93, 96. 



INDEX 



299 



Lace (Continued) 

made by hand, 96. 

names and retail prices of, 94-95. 

other ways to finish instead of using, 97. 

sewing on, 97-99. 

torchon, 93, 95. 

Valenciennes, 94, 97. 
Lady's cloth, 211. 
"Latest style," 251. 
Lawn, 61. 
Linen : 

bleaching, cloth, 195. 

finishing, cloth for shipping, 195. 

kinds of, 182-184. 

manufacture of, 191-196. 

weaving, 194. 

where grown, 175. 
(See Flax.) 
Linen canvas, 183. 
Linen laces, 93, 96. 
Linen materials : 

adulteration in, 280. 

how identified, 181-182. 

kinds of, 182-183. 
Linen sheeting, 182. 
Linens : 

how to wash and iron, 188-190. 

points to be noticed in buying, 196-199. 
Linseed oil, 184. 
Loom : 

for weaving cotton, 66-68. 

hand, 67, 70, 71. 

"in days gone by," 68. 

in factory, 69. 

Jacquard, 124. 

primitive, 68, 71. 
Luna moth, in. 

Materials : 

adulterated, 279, 280. 

buying, 276-278. 

for apron, 31. 

for bloomers, 202. 

for underwear, 101, 106. 

from cotton, 7-10. 



Materials (Continued) 

from wool, 209-214. 

linen, 182-184. 

silk, 123-126. 

weighted, 279. 
Measurements : 

how to take, 49-50. 
Melton, 211. 

Middy blouse, how to make, 268-271. 
Mohair, 213. 
Moire silk, 125. 
Mull, 61. 
Muslin, 59. 

Nainsook, 59. 
Nightdress : 

cutting, 78. 

french-seam, 86-89. 

making hem of, 88. 

material for, 63. 

placing pattern, 78. 

trimming, 98. 
Nun's veiling, 212. 

Organzine, 133. 
Outing flannel, 9. 
Outline stitch, 121. 
Overcasting buttonhole, 41, 42. 
Overhanding stitch, 28-30. 

Pageant, 200. 

Parts of sewing machine, 80-83. 
Patch (See Hemmed patch). 
Pattern : 

embroidered, 288. 

for bloomers, 201. 

for petticoat, 102. 

how made in cloth, 285. 

how woven, 285. 

laying for bloomers, 215. 

laying nightdress, 79. 

opening and reading, 47-48. 

opening and studying, 201. 

printed, 286. 

sending for, 47. 



300 



INDEX 



Pattern (Continued) 

to change, 51. 

to lengthen, 51. 
Percales, 7, 10. 
Petticoat : 

learning to make, 103-105. 

making, for children, 53-55. 

material for, 101, 102. 

pattern for, 102. 

planning and cutting, 48-52. 
Pincase, 116-118. 
Placket, 105. 
Pongee, 125. 
Porch cushion, 140-141. 
Pressing suits, and skirts, 157. 
Printing cloth, 287. 
Protecting clothes, 161. 

Raw silk, 115. 

Removing stains and spots, 158, 185- 

189. 
Rinsing, 190. 
Rubbers, 162. 

Ruffle, making for petticoat, 104. 
Running and backstitch, 34. 
Running stitch, 165, 168, 169. 
Russian crash, 139, 182. 

Samplers, 143. 
Samples for toweling, 6. 
Satin, 123. 
Scalloped edge, 142. 

Seams, sewing with running and back- 
stitch, 35. 
Serge, 209. 
Sewing, an art, 3. 
Sewing apron, 127-129. 
Sewing case, 118. 
Sewing machine : 

how to regulate, 83. 

how to run, 84-86. 

how to thread, 84-86. 

invented, 81. 

kinds of, 81. 

parts of, 81-83. 



Sewing machine (Continued) 

things to remember about stitching 
with, 85. 
Sewing on lace insertion or edging, 97. 
Shearing sheep, 204-206. 
Shears, 205. 
Sheep, 204. 
Sheep industry, 205. 
Shoes : 

buying, 243. 

care of, 162. 
Shuttle, 67-68. 
Silhouette, 254, 255, 261. 
Silk: 

cocoons grown for, 112. 

dyeing, 133-135. 

fibers, in, 132. 

how produced, 109. 

kinds of, 122-126. 

moths, 109. 

names of, 122-126. 

raw, 114-115. 

reeling, 114. 

throwing, 132-133. 

weaving by hand, 136-137. 

weighting, 135, 279-280. 

where manufactured, 131. 

winding, 133. 
Silk-scraps, articles made from, 1 16-122. 
Silkworm : 

life story of, 109-112. 

where grown, no. 
Sizing : 

test for, 281. 
Skirt pattern, 47. 
Skirts : 

changing and lengthening pattern for, 

50, 5.1- 

pressing, 157. 

to cut, 51, 52. 

to make, 53-55. 
Soap bark, 158. 
Soap solution, 158. 
Spinning, method of: 

in modern factory, 73, 227. 



INDEX 



301 



Spinning (Continued) 

primitive, 71. 
Spinning : 

cotton, 72-77. 

flax, 191-194. 

silk (See silk throwing). 

wool, 225-228. 
Spinning wheel : 

for flax, 75. 

for wool, 74. 
Sprinkling linen, 190. 
Stains : 

blood, 187. 

coffee, 186. 

fruit, 186. 

grass, 187. 

how removed, 185. 

ink, 187. 

tea, 186. 

when to be removed, 185. 
Stitches for decorating, 1 18-120. 

(See Embroidery stitches.) 
Stitching stitch : 

making, 25-26. 

other uses of, 27. 

use of, 23. 
Stockinet, 167. 
Stockings : 

darning, 167-169. 

how made, 167. 

kind to buy, 170. 

sewing rips in, 170. 
Studying lines, 261. 
Studying values, 255, 257, 259. 
Suits, pressing, 157. 

Table runner, 139. 

Taffeta, 122. 

Tears, learning to darn, 163-166. 

Textiles : 

for apron, 7, 8. 

weighted, 279. 
Textile sample books, 8. 
Textile surprise book, 10. 
Textile surprise box, opening, 58. 



Textile test : 

burning, 282. 

chemical, 284. 

for combination, 280. 

for fading, 283. 

for finishing, 281. 

for shrinkage, 284. 

for sizing, 281. 

for strength, 283. 

with microscope, 282. 
Threading and running a machine, 84- 

86. 
Ticking, 10, 149. 
Torchon lace, 93, 95. 
Toweling, material for, 6. 
Towels, material for, 6-7. 
"Tram", 133. 
Tweed, 210. 

Underwear : 

cotton material for, 101. 

relation to health, 245-247. 
Uses of lace, 93-97. 

Valenciennes lace, 94, 96. 
Velvet, 125. 
Voile, 212. 

Warp thread, 67-68. 

Washing and ironing, the process for, 

189-190. 
Weaving : 

by hand, with simple loom, 67. 

cotton, 69. 

in modern factory, 69. 

Japanese girl, 69-70, 136. 

linen, 194. 

patterns in cloth, 285. 

silk, 124, 136-137. 

wool, 226-228. 
Well-dressed, what it means to be, 250- 

_255- 
White petticoat, 101-102. 
Wool: 

blended, 221. 



302 



INDEX 



Wool (Continued) 

carder, 223. 

carding, 222. 

carding by hand, 76-77. 

fibers, 205, 226. 

how made into cloth, 218-228. 

material made from, 209-215. 

sheared from sheep, 206. 

sorted, 218. 

spinning, 225-228. 

quality of, 207. 

variety of fibers, 207. 

washing or scouring, 220. 

where grown, 203-204. 

why it varies, 208. 
Wool clothing, facts to remember about 
purchasing, 224-229. 



Woolen garments : 

points about buying, 229. 

washing, 158. 
Wool Voile, 213. 
Woolen yarns, 225. 
Workbag, 127. 
Worsted yarns, 225. 

Yarn: 

spinning of cotton into, 72-77 

woolen and worsted, 225. 
Yoke : 

attaching, 38. 

cutting, apron, 33. 

making for apron, 37. 

placing the lining, 39. 

planning pattern for apron, 32. 



Printed in the United States of America. 



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